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Daniel's random 6

Week 2 continued

QuestionAnswer
HOw is foscarnet diff from all the other agents that bind and inhibit DNA polymerase in herpesvirus and reverse transcriptase in HIV? it does not require activation intracellularly by viral or cellular kinases
what is required for S. viridans to adhere to valves and cause subacute endocarditis? preexisting valve damage with deposition of platelets and fibrin
what outside the nucleus is involved in mRNA processing and regulation? cytoplasmic P bodies
macrophages activated by? CD? interferon gamma CD14
how does hep B present? prodromal period that is "serum sickness like" malaise, fever, skin rash, pruritis, lymphadenopathy, and joint pain; liver stuff after
measles complication occuring years after SSPE CSF - oligoclonal bands of antibodies to the virus; anti-M component are absent
acute pericarditis 24 days following transmural MI. describe pericardial inflammation overlying the necrotic segments of myocardium; both visceral and parietal pericardium
AICA stroke 1. lateral pons (vistubular nuclei, FACIAL NUCLEUS, trigeminal nucleus, sympathetic fibers, cochlear nuclei) 2. middle and inferior Cerebral peduncles; Lateral pontine syndrome
lesion of what causes eyes to look...? 1. away from side of lesion 2. toward lesion 1. PPRF 2. frontal eye fields
atropine poisoning mnemonic blind as a bat; mad as a hatter; red as a beet; hot as a hare; dry as a bone; bowel and bladder lose their tone; heart runs alone
signs of klumpke's palsy and thoracic outlet syndrome 1. hypothenar and thenar atrophy; 2. interosseos muscle atrophy; 3. sensory deficit -> medial forearm and hand; 4. moving head toward ipsilateral side -> disappearance of radial pulse
embryonal carcinoma painful, usually mixed with other; may have increased HCG; when pure, normal AFP, glandular/papillary
medium used to isolate Neisseria species Theyer martin selective medium -> chocolate (heated blood) agar;
What does theyer martin contain? 1. vanco -> gram positive; 2. colistin (polymyxin) -> gram neg; 3. trimethoprim-> gram negative and other neisseria; 4. nystatin -> fungi
bilateral amygdala lesion 1. kluver bucy; hypersexuality, hyperorality, disinhibited behavior
what virus is bilateral amygdala lesion associated with? HSV1
LGN CN2 input, vision; destination is calcarine sulcus; lateral = light
teratoma males mature is bad; increased HCG and/or AFP in 50%
leydig cell tumor Reinke crystals; golden brown; androgen producing -> gynecomastia in man; precocious puberty in boys
sertoli cell tumor androblastoma from sex cord stroma
what is most common testicular cancer in older man? testicular lymphoma (not primary)
spermatocele dilated epididymal duct
yolk sac (endodermal sinus) tumor boys yellow, mucinous; schiller duval bodies; increased AFP
choriocarcinoma boys increased HCG; disordered syncytiotrophoblastic and cytotrophoblastic elemants; hematogenous mets to lungs; gynecomastia (hCG -> LH analog)
ornithine transcarbamolyase (OTC) deficiency increased NH3; increased orotic acid (made from accumulated carbomyl phosphate); x lined; increased carbomyl phosphate
Carbomyl phosphate synthetase deficiency increased NH3; decreased carbomyl phosphate; AR
charcot marie tooth disease MC hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy; protein defects -> decreased structure and function of peripheral nerves or myelin sheath; inverted bottle appearance in lower legs
metachromic leukodystrophy AR; lysosomal storage disease arylsulfatase A deficiency; buildup of sulfatides; impaired myelin sheath production -> ataxia, dementia
acute disseminated encephalomyelitis multifocal perivenular inflammation and demyelination after enfection or vaccination - delayed hypersenstivitiy reaction - fever, HA, seizures 1-3 weeks after infx
reid index mucous layer thickness/bronchial wall w.o cartilage; 40% is normal; increased in chronic bronchitis and asthma
glioblastoma multiforme GFAP stain; pseudopalisading pleomorphic tumor cells -> border central necrosis and hemorrhage
pilocytic (low grade) astrocytoma GFAP; cystic and solid; Rosenthal fibers -> eosinophilic, corkscrew fibers; good, benign
INO 1. lateral gaze, medial rectal palsy in contralateral eye; 2. nystagmus in abducting eye; 3. convergence is normal MLF = MS
on histology, where are parietal cells located in stomach? superficial gastric glands
endochondrial ossification longitudinal bone
hemangioblastoma usually cerebellar; VHL when found with retinal angiomas; foam cells and high vascularity
ependymoma 4th ventricle; can cause hydrocephalus; bad prognosis; perivascular pseudorossettes; rod shaped blephorplasts (basal ciliary bodies) near nucleus
medulloblastoma primited neuroectodermal tumor (PNET); can compress 4th ventricle -> hydrocephalus; very malignant; radiosensitive; solid; rosettes or perivascular pseudorosette pattern
"on-off"phenomenon vs. "wearing off" phenomenon 1. unpredictable and dose independent- fluctuation in symptoms of advanced parkinson disease on long term L-dopa; 2. more predictable, dose dependent- progressive destruction of striatonigral dopaminergic neurons over time
MGN input- superior olive and inferior colliculus of tectum; info-hearing; destination- auditory cortex of temporal lobe; medial=music
free radical damage mechanism 1. membrane lipid peroxidation; 2. protein modification 3. DNA breakage
examples of free radical damage 1. retinopathy of prematurity 2. reperfusion 3. CCL4 -> liver necrosis 4. acetaminophen 5. iron overload 5. cirgarette smoke -> bronchopulmonary dysplasia
meinere's disease triad: tinnitus, vertigo, and sensorineural hearing loss; 2. increased volume and pressure of endolymph in vestibular apparatus
parvovirus arthritis mimics what disease? RA: symmetric, simialr joints
how is parvovirus different from RA? RF is negative; self resolving
southwestern blot identifies DNA binding proteins; transcription factors, nucleases, histines, etc
AICA stroke symptoms 1. face paralysis, decreased lacrimation, salivation, decreased taste anterior 2/3 tongue, decreased corneal reflex 2. vomiting, vertigo, nystagmus 3. face decreased pain and temp 4. ipsilateral decreased hearing loss 5. ipsilateral Horner's
what produces aqueous humor in the eye? ciliary epithelium
what agents block aqueous humor? timolol, and other beta blockers; acetazolamide; alpha agonists
Created by: ilovemusic007