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Geography Terms

Chapter 11

Aborigines indigenous peoples of Australia.
Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) association of more than 40 low-lying, mostly island, countries that have formed an alliance to combat global warming, which threatens their existence through sea-level rise.
Antarctic Treaty international agreement to demilitarize the Antarctic continent, delay mineral exploration, and preserve it for scientific research.
atoll low-lying island landform consisting of a circle of coral reefs around a lagoon, often associated with the rim of a submerged volcano or mountain.
cargo cult Pacific island religious movements in which the dawn of a coming new age was associated with the arrival of goods brought by spiritual beings or foreigners.
cattle station livestock enterprises where cattle (or sheep) are raised on large grazing leases in the remote regions of Australia.
Closer Economic Relations (CER) Agreement agreement in 1983 that built upon an earlier New Zealand-Australia Free Trade Agreement (NZAFTA) and set out to remove all tariffs and restrictions on trade between the two countries.
common property resources resources such as fish or forests that are managed collectively by a community that has rights to the resource rather than it being owned by individuals.
Dreamtime aboriginal worldview that links past and future, people and places, in a continuity that ensures respect for the natural world.
ecological imperialism concept developed by historian Alfred Crosby
ecosystem complex of living organisms, their physical environment, and all their relationships in a particular place
Great Artesian Basin world's largest reserve of underground water located in central Australia and under pressure so that water rises to the surface when wells are bored.
intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) region where air flows together and rises vertically as a result of intense solar heating at the equator, often with heavy rainfall, and shifting north and south with the seasons.
marsupial Australian mammal such as the kangaroo, koala, and wombat that gives birth to premature infants that then develop and feed from nipples in a pouch on the mother's body.
Melanesia region of the western Pacific that includes the westerly and largest islands of Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Fiji, Vanuatu, and New Caledonia.
Outback dry and thinly populated interior of Australia.
ozone depletion loss of the protective layer of ozone gas that prevents harmful ultraviolet radiation from reaching Earth's surface and causing increases in skin cancer and other ecological damage.
Polynesia central and southern Pacific islands that include the independent countries of Samoa, Tonga, the Cook Islands, Niue, and Tuvalu; the U.S. territory of American Samoa; the French territories of Wallis and Fortuna and French Polynesia (including the island
South Pacific Forum institution that promotes discussion and cooperation on trade, fisheries, and tourism between all of the independent and self-governing states of Oceania.
stolen generation Aboriginal children that were forcibly removed from their homes in Australia and placed in white foster homes or institutions.
subsistence affluence achievement of a good standard of living through reliance on self-sufficiency in local foods and with little cash income.
theory of island biogeography theory that smaller islands will generally be less biologically diverse than larger ones.
Treaty of Waitangi 1840 agreement in which 40 Maori chiefs gave the Queen of England governance over their land and the right to purchase it in exchange for protection and citizenship. Reinterpreted by the Waitangi tribunal in the 1990s, it provides the basis for Maori land
White Australia policy Australian policy, until 1975, that restricted immigration to people from northern Europe through a ranking that placed British and Scandinavians as the highest priority, followed by southern Europeans, with the goal of attaining a homogenized-looking and
Created by: thesirpucas