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AICP Theory 2008

AICP Theory Questions

What are the 4 theories of Urban Development? Concentric Circle, Sector, Central Place, and Multiple Nuclei Theories
This person was a sociologist who studied the growth of Chicago. He believed that cities grow in a series of outward rings. Land use is based on the distance from the downtown. Who and what year? Ernest Burgess; 1925
This theory has some of these theories: a central business district, which houses a concentration of gov't, office, & commercial uses; industrial uses; a zone of transition -- This area is a mix of indust & low-income housing. Concentric Circle Theory: 1925 (Ed Burgess). There are essentially 5 theories here (only 4 are listed). High-class residential is considered the last of the series of "outward" rings in growth.
This person was in the real estate business in Chicago & was interested in high-end residential development; disagreed w/Burgess' conception of city growth; argued that land uses vary based on transportation routes. What theory and what year? Homer Hoyt; Sector theory - 1939; As a result of land uses being based on transpsortation routes, the city was a series of sectors radiating out from the center of the city.
These 2 argued that cities develop a series of specific land use nuclei. A land use nucleus is formed because of accessibility to natural resources, clustering of similar uses, land prices, & the repelling power of land uses. What theory is this? Who/yea Harris and Ullman in 1945
This theory explains the size & spacing of cities. The theory states that there is a minimum market threshold to bring a firm to a city & there is a maximum range people are willing to travel to receive goods & services. What theory is this? Who/year? Walter Christaller in 1933, Central Place Theory
This theory is considered is a geographical theory that seeks to explain the size and spacing of human settlements. It rests on the notion that centralization is a natural principle of order and that human settlements follow it. What is it? Central Place Theory
Name the 7 theories of planning practice. Rational, Incremental, Mixed Scanning, Advocacy, Transactive, Radical, and Communicative
This type of "planning" is to apply the concepts of the scientific method to city planning. The rational model closely matches the scientific method and includes the following steps: Set Goals; Determine, Evaluate, Choose & Implement Alternatives; Evaluat Rational Planning
This type of "planning" planning was the dominant planning theory through the 1950s. It can still be seen in use in all areas of the planning practice, but transportation planning is the one area in which rational planning persists. Rational Planning
This type of planning was first introduced by Charles Lindblom. What book did Lindblom author and what type of planning was this? "The Science of Muddling Through", 1959; Incremental Planning
Lindblom suggests that planning has to be piece meal, incremental, opportunistic, & pragmatic. He argues that planning in the real world is not rational & comprehensive, but is instead disjointed & incremental. Name this "planning" practice theory? Incremental Planning
Who introduced the concept of mixed scanning as a compromise between the rational and incremental planning theories? (Mixed scanning views planning decisions at two levels: the big picture and the small picture). Amitai Etzioni
This 'planning' improved upon incrementalism by recognizing the difference btwn policy-changing decisions & implementation decisions. Mixed Scanning
An example of this type of planning, is a comprehensive plan would be created using the rational planning approach, while the implementation of the plan would use an incremental approach. Mixed Scanning
Advocacy Planning was developed in the 1960s by? Paul Davidoff
This person believed that Davidoff believed that planners should work to create plans that represent the various interests groups. This would result in plural plans for public consideration. Paul Davidoff
An "??" planner is responsible for a particular interest group in the community & would create plans that express that group’s values & objectives. Planners would either work directly for the interest group or as an inside advocate at city hall. Advocacy Planner
While advocacy planning promoted the planner as an advocate for special interest groups, some argued that the role of the planner should be to advocate specifically for the disadvantaged in the community. Paul Davidoff -- 1960's
Who adopted "equity planning in Cleveland, during the 1970s and, as a result, helped make the needs of its low-income groups the highest priority. " Norman Krumholz
Whose view on equity planning is that planners should work to redistribute power, resources, or participation away from the elite and toward the poor and working-class residents of the community? Norman Krumholz
Who published: "Retracking America: A Theory of Transactive Planning"? 1973, John Friedmann
This type of "planning" theory was developed in the 1970s as a way to get the public involved in the planning process. Transactive
The planner meets w/individuals in the comm. to discuss issues. Through a process of "mutual learning" the planner shares technical knowledge, while the citizen provide comm. knowledge. Planner meets w/many people in the comm. in order to develop a plan. Transactive Planning
Who wrote " Planning in the Public Domain: From Knowledge to Action". John Friedman, 1987. In it he discusses the concept of radical planning.
This type of "planning" takes the power away from the government and gives it to the people. In this process, citizens get together and develop their own plans. Radical Planning
The problem w/this form of planning is that it is not possible to implement. We do not have a governmental structure that would allow neighborhoods or individual groups to develop and implement their own plans. Radical Planning
The current theory of choice among planning practitioners. Planners around the nation have moved towards more open planning that includes a much more intensive citizen participation process. Communicative Planning
This theory recognizes that planning operates w/in the realm of politics, & that it contains a variety of stakeholder interests. The communicative approach tries to use a rational model as a basis for bringing mutual understanding among all stakeholders. Communicative Planning
Created by: Firecracker