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RN Gerontology II

Psychologic Changes

Expected age related changes oSenile Lentigo- age/liver spots oSeborrheic keratosis- cutaneous papilloma or skin tags oCrow’s feet or wrinkles- from loss of elasticity oFaded hair color- loss of pigmentation
Expected age related changes hair distribution patterns change, fingernails grow more slowly, toenails become thick, xerosis, senile pupura
Common disorders with aging Basal cell carcinoma, Pressure ulcers, Inflammation and infection, hypothermia
Bones long bones: intake of Calcium, phosphorus & vit A,C,D. apply stress to bones to keep minerals in bones. Joints- where bones meet. Freely moving synovial joints are lined with cartilage which allows free movement of the joint surface.
Tendons and ligaments Tendon-Structures that connect the muscles to the bones Ligaments- structures that connect bones to other bones
Muscles Cardiac-heart muscles Smooth-in hollow organs Skeletal- largest muscle.
Musculoskeletal age related changes Decrease in: bone calcium, fluid in intravertebral disks, blood supply to muscles, tissue elasticity, muscle mass
Common disorders seen with aging (muscle) Osteoporosis Degenerative joint disease Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, bursitis, gouty arthritis
Respiratory expected age-related changes Decrease in: body fluids, number of cilia, number of macrophages, tissue elasticity in the alveoli and lower lung, muscle strength and endurance, number of capillaries. Increased calcification of cartilage
Cardiac expected age-related changes Decrease in: cardiac muscle tone, cardiac output, elasticity of heart muscle and blood vessels, pacemaker cells, baroreceptor sensitivity. Increase in: heart size (left ventricle), incidence of valvular sclerosis, atherosclerosis
Hematopoietic age-related changes Increase: plasma viscosity, immature T-cell respone Decrease: red blood cell production, mobilization of neutrophil
Gastrointestinal age-related changes Increase: dental caries and tooth loss Decrease: thirst perception, gag reflex, muscle tone at sphincters, saliva and gastric and peristalsis, liver size and enzyme production
Common Gastrointestinal disorders Hiatal hernia, gastritis and ulcers, diverticulosis and diverticulitis, cancer, hemorrhoids, rectal prolapse
Urinary age-related changes Decrease: number of functional nephrons, blood supply, muscle tone, tissue elasticity, perception of need to void Increase: nocturnal urine production, size of prostate (male)
urinary disorders Urinary incontinence, urinary tract infection, chronic renal failure
Neurologic age-related changes Decrease: number of brain cells, number of nerve fibers, amounts of neuroreceptors, peripheral nerve function
Neurologic disorders Parkinson’s disease, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, transient ischemic attack, cerebrovascular accident
Age-related changes of the eye Decreased: number of eyelashes, tear production, tissue elasticity, muscle tone Increase: discoloration of lens
Common eye disorders Blepharitis, diplopia, cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration
age-related changes of the ears Decrease: tissue elasticity, joint mobility, ceruminous cells in the external ear canal, atrophy of vestibular structures and structures in the inner ear
Common ear disorders Otosclerosis, tinnitus, deafness, meniere’s disease
Taste and smell age-related disorders Decreased: number of papillae on tongue, number of nasal sensory receptors
Endocrine age-related changes Decreased: pituitary secretions (growth hormone), production of thyroid0stimulating hormone, insulin production or increased insulin resistance, production of parathyroid hormone
reproductive age-related disorders Women: decrease in estrogen levels and tissue elasticity Men: decrease in testosterone levels and circulation
reproductive common disorders Uterine prolapse, vaginal infection, breast cancer, prostate cancer
Created by: smarti13