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Allied Health

The digestive system

What is digestion? The process of changing complex solid food into simples soluble forms which can be absorbed by body cells.
What are enzymes? Chemical substances that promote chemical reactions in living things.
What is the alimentary canal> Digestive tract or gastrointestinal tract, a 30 ft. tube from the mouth to the anus.
What are the accessory organs that are apart of the digestion process? Tongue, teeth, salivary glans, pancreas, liver, gall bladder.
What is the peritoneum? Double-layered serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity.
Functions of the digestive system? Physical breakdown of foo, chemical digestion of foos into the end products of fat, carbohydrates and protein, - absorb nutrients into nlood capillaries of the small intestine, eliminate waste products of digestion.
What is the mouth? Food enters the digestivee system through mouth, inside of mouth covered with mucous membrane, roof of mouth is HARD PALATE(bone) and SOFT PALATE,
What is the uvula? A flap the hangs off soft palate- prevents food from going up the nose when you swallow
What is the tongue? Attached to floor of mouth, helps in chewing and swallowing, made of skeletal muscle attached to four bones, taste buds on the surface.
What are the salivary glands? Three paris of glans, PAROTID-largest salivary glans, they become inflamed during mumps, secrete saliva.
What are teeth? GINGIVA-gums, support and protect teeh,MASTICATION-chewing, teethin in mechanical digestion, DECIDUOUS TEETH- baby teeth(20 in number), adult mouth has 32 teeth,
What is the esophagus? Muscular tube, 10" long, connects pharynx and stomach
What is the stomach? Upper part of the abdominal cavity, CARDIAC SPHINCTER-circular layer of muscle, control passage of food into stomach , PYLORIC SPHINCTER-valve, regulates the enterance of food into duodenum,
What is rugae? Mucous coat lining of stomach in folds when the stomach is empty, the stomach has a muscular coast that allow it tocontract (peristalsis) and push food into the small intestine.
What is the small intestine? DUODENUM- first segment, curves arounf pancreas, 12" long, JEJUNUM- next section, 8 ft. long, ILEUM- final portion, 10-12 ft long,
What is absorption? In small intestine, digested food passes into bloodstream and on to body cells, undigestible passes on to large intestine.
What is the pancreas? Located behind stomach, exocrine function- secrete digestive enzymes, also has endocrine function.
What is the liver? Largest organ in the body, located below the diaphragm, upper right quardrant, connected to gallbladder and small intestine by ducts
What is the function of the liver? Produce and store glucose in the form of glycogen, detoxify alcohol,drugs, and other harmful substances, manufacture blood proteins, manufacutres bile, stores vitamin A, D, and B complex.
What is the gallbladder? Small green organ, inferior surface of the liver, stores and concentrates bile until needed by the body, when fatty foods digested, bile released by gallbladder.
What is the large intestine? CHYME-semi-liquid food, approx 2" in diameter, also called the colon, CECUM-lower right portion of large intestine, APPENDIX-finger-like projection off cecum, RECTUM-last portion of large intestine, ANUS-external opening.
What us bolus? Soft, pliable ball- crrating from chewing and addition of saliva- it slides down esophagus.
What is peristalsis? Wavelike motions, move food along esophagus, stomach and intestines.
What is heartburn? Acid reflux, burning sensation , avoid chocolate and peppermint, coffee, citris, fried or fatty foods, tomato products- stop smoking- take antacids- dont lay hown 2-3 hours after eating
What is gastroenteritis? Inflammation of mmucous membrane lining of stomach and intestine, (virus), diarrhea and vomiting for 24-36 hours, dehydration,
What is an ulcer? Sore or leaion that forms in the mucosal lining of the stomach, gastirc ulcers in the stomach and duodenal ulcers in the duodenum( caused by bacteria), burning in the abdominal cavity
What is appendicitis? When appendix becomes inflamed, if it ruptures, bacteria from appendix can spread to peritoneal cavity,
What is hepatitis A? Infectious hepatitis, (virus) spread through contaminated food or H2O
What is hepatitis B? ( serum hepatitis) Caused by virus found in blood, tansmitted by blood tranfusion or being stuch with contaminated needles, health care workeers at rish and should be vaccinated, use standard precautions for prevention.
What is cirrhosis? Chronic, progressive disease of the lover, normal tissue replaced by fibrous connective tissue, 75% caused by excessive alcohol consumption,
What is cholecystitis? Inflammation of the gallbladder.
What is cholelithiasis? Gallstones, can block the bile duct causing pain and digestive disorders, small ones may pass on their own, large ones surgically removed, (cholecystectomy-removal of gallbladder)
What is diarrhea? Looses, watery, frequent bowl movements when feces pass along colon too rapidly, caused by infecionm poor diest, nervousness, toxic substances or irritants in food,
What is constipation? When defecation delayed, feces become dry and hard, diet with cereals, fruits, vegetables, drinking plenty of fluid, exercise, and avoiding tension.
What is jaundice? Yellow color of the skin
Created by: Netta16