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Science Review

Earthquakes

QuestionAnswer
What is the place where the earthquake cracks? focus
What is the spot on the surface directly above the earthquake's focus? epicenter (where the most damage happens)
Which are the fastest-moving waves? P (primary) waves
Which type of waves can travel through solids, liquids, and gases? P (primary) waves
Which are the second fastest-moving waves? S (secondary) waves
Which type of waves can only travel through solids? S (secondary) waves
Which are the last waves to leave the focus? surface waves
What instrument measures and records earthquake waves? seismograph
Which scale is used to measure an earthquake's intensity based on eyewitness observations? Mercalli scale
Which is a mathematical scale that measures the actual amount of seismic activity of an earthquake? Richter scale
Which is the more accurate earthquake scale? Richter scale
Who developed the Richter scale in 1936? Charles F. Richter
What are the tremors called that follow major earthquakes and can cause damage? aftershock
What is a very large ocean wave caused by an underwater earthquake or volcanic eruption? tsunami
What are waves of energy that travel through the Earth called? seismic waves
What is the outermost, rigid layer of the Earth composed of the stiff upper layer of mantle and crust called? lithosphere
Where do most earthquakes happen? at plate boundaries
Where do the most severe earthquakes happen? at convergent boundaries
Which type of fault is where two fault blocks move past each other horizontally? strike slip fault
Which type of fault is where two fault blocks move past each other vertically? dip slip fault
Which type of fault is where the hanging wall moves down? normal fault
Which type of fault is where the hanging wall moves up? reverse fault
Which type of reverse fault is has a gently dipping fault surface? thrust fault
What is a break in the earth's surface? fracture
What is the land mass above the fault-slides called? hanging wall
What is the land mass below the fault called? footwall
What type of mountains are formed when converging rock layers are squeezed together and pushed upward folded mountains
What type of mountains are formed at divergent boundaries? fault block mountains
What is the process of mountain formation called? orogenesis
Created by: CooperLane