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Geography Terms

afforestation converting previously unforested land to forest by planting trees or seeds
aridity climate with insufficient moisture to support trees or woody plants
Balfour Declaration 1917 British mandate that required the establishment of a Jewish national homeland
desertification process by which arid and semiarid lands become degraded and less productive, leading to more desertlike conditions
guest worker a foreigner who is permitted to work in another country on a temporary basis
hajj pilgrimage to Mecca required of all Muslims
import substitution process by which domestic producers provide goods or services that were formerly bought from foreign producers
informal economy economic activities that take place beyond official record and not subject to formalized systems of regulation or remuneration (example, street selling, petty crime)
intifada the violent uprising of Palestinians against the rule of Israel in the Occupied Territories
Islam religion that is based on submission to God's will according to the Qur'an
Islamism anti-colonial, anti-imperialist, and overall
jihad sacred struggle or striving to carry out God's will according to the tenets of Islam
kinship shared notion of relationship among members of a group often but not necessarily based on blood, marriage, or adoption massif
Muslim member of the Islamic religion
nationalist movement organized groups of people, sharing common elements of culture, such as language, religion, or history, who wish to determine their own political affairs
nationalization process of converting key industries from private to governmental organization and control
oasis spot in the desert made fertile by the availability of surface water
petrodollar revenues generated by the sale of oil
tribe form of social identity created by groups who share a common set of ideas about collective loyalty and political action
world religion belief system with worldwide adherents
Zionism movement whose chief objective has been the establishment for the Jewish people of a legally recognized home in Palestine
biodiversity variety in the types and numbers of species in particular regions of the world
biogeography study of the spatial distribution of vegetation, animals, and other organisms
biome largest geographic biotic unit, a major community of plants and animals or similar ecosystems
cartogram map projection that is transformed in order to promote legibility or to reveal patterns not readily apparent on a traditional base map
climate typical conditions of the weather expected at a place often measured by long
colonialism establishment and maintenance of political and legal domination by a state over a separate and alien society
colonization establishment of settlement in a place or region
commodity anything useful that can be bought or sold
commodity chains networks of labor and production processes that originate in the extraction or production of raw materials, The end result is the delivery and consumption of a finished commodity
communism form of economic and social organization characterized by the common ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange
continental drift slow movement of the continents over long periods of time across Earth's surface (see plate tectonics)
culture shared set of meanings that are lived through the material and symbolic practices of everyday life
demographic transition replacement of high birth and death rates by low birth and death rates
diaspora spatial dispersion of a previously homogeneous group
ecosystem complex of living organisms, their physical environment, and all their relationships in a particular place
gender social differences between men and women rather than the anatomical differences related to sex
geomorphology study of landforms global warming
globalization increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of economic, environmental, political, and cultural change
greenhouse effect trapping of heat within the atmosphere by water vapor and gases, such as carbon dioxide, resulting in the warming of the atmosphere and surface
gross domestic product (GDP) estimate of the total value of all materials, foodstuffs, goods, and services that are produced in a country in a particular year
hegemony domination over the world economy, exercised through a combination of economic, military, financial, and cultural means, by one national state in a particular historical epoch
imperialism extension of the power of a nation through direct or indirect control of the economic and political life of other territories
international division of labor specialization of different people, regions, and countries in certain kinds of economic activities
International Monetary Fund (IMF) organization that provides loans to governments throughout the world
International regime orientation of contemporary politics around the international arena rather than the national one
intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) region where air flows together and rises vertically as a result of intense solar heating at the equator, often with heavy rainfall, and shifting north and south with the seasons
leadership cycles periods of international power established by individual states through economic, political, and military competition
mercantilism economic policy in which government controls industry and trade
nation group of people often sharing common elements of culture, such as religion, language, a history, or political identity
nationalism feeling of belonging to a nation as well as the belief that a nation has a natural right to determine its own affairs
nation state
neocolonialism economic and political strategies by which powerful states in core economies indirectly maintain or extend their influence over other areas or people
neoliberalism economic doctrine based on a belief in a minimalist role for the state, assuming the desirability of free markets as the ideal condition not only for economic organization but also for social and political life
plate tectonics theory that Earth's crust is divided into large solid plates that move relative to each other and cause mountain building, volcanic, and earthquake activity when they separate or meet
quaternary activity economic activity that deals with the handling and processing of knowledge and information
regional geography study of the ways in which unique combinations of environmental and human factors produce territories with distinctive landscapes and cultural attributes
regionalism strong feelings of collective identity shared by religious or ethnic groups that are concentrated within a particular region
regionalization geographer's classification of individual places or areal units
Secondary activity economic activity involving the processing, transformation, fabrication, or assembly of raw materials, or the reassembly, refinishing, or packaging of manufactured goods
sectionalism extreme devotion to local interests and customs
sense of place feelings evoked among people as a result of the experiences and memories that they associate with a place and to the symbolism that they attach to it
social movements organized movements of people with an agenda of political opposition and activism
sovereignty exercise of state power over people and territory, recognized by other states and codified by international law
spatial justice fairness of the distribution of society's burdens and benefits, taking into account spatial variations in people's needs and in their contribution to the production of wealth and social well
state independent political unit with territorial boundaries that are internationally recognized by other states
structural adjustment policies economic policies, mostly associated with the International Monetary Fund, that required governments to cut budgets and liberalize trade in return for debt relief
supranational organization collection of individual states with a common economic and/or political goal that diminishes, to some extent, individual state sovereignty in favor of the collective interests of the membership
sustainable development vision of development that seeks a balance among economic growth, environmental impacts, and social equity
tertiary activity economic activity involving the sale and exchange of goods and services
World Bank development bank and the largest source of development assistance in the world
world region large scale geographic division based on continental and physiographic settings that contain major clusters of humankind with broadly similar cultural attributes
world system interdependent system of linked by political and economic competition
Berlin Conference meeting convened by German chancellor Bismark in 1884 to 85 to divide Africa among European colonial powers
bush fallow modification of shifting cultivation where crops are rotated around a village and fallow periods are shortened
common market market in which internal restrictions on the movement of capital, labor, and enterprise are also removed from the basic framework of a customs union
Desertification process by which arid and semiarid lands become degraded and less productive, leading to more desertlike conditions Domestification
ethnic group group of people whose members share cultural characteristics
feminization of poverty likelihood that women will be poor, malnourished, and otherwise disadvantaged because of inequalities within the household, the community, and the country
G8 Group of Eight countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) whose heads of state meet each year to discuss issues of mutual and global concern
harmattan hot, dry wind that blows out of inland Africa
homelands areas set aside in South Africa for black residents as tribal territories where they were given limited self
Irredentism assertion by the government of a country that a minority living outside its borders belongs to it historically and culturally
microfinance programs programs that provide credit and savings to the self
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 8 goals to be met by the year 2015, agreed to by the UN, that include the eradication of poverty, universal primary education, gender equality, reduction of child mortality, improvement of maternal health, combating of disease
modernization theory economic development occurs when investment rates enable higher levels of industrialization, thus raising labor productivity and increasing the GDP per capita levels
Pastoralism system of farming and way of life based on keeping herds of grazing animals
shifting cultivation agricultural system that preserves soil fertility by moving crops from one plot to another
slash and burn agricultural system often used in tropical forests that involves cutting trees and brush and burning them so that crops can benefit from cleared ground and nutrients in the ash
Transhumance movement of herds according to seasonal rhythms: warmer, lowland areas in the winter, and cooler, highland areas in the summer
Tribe form of social identity created by groups who share a common set of ideas about collective loyalty and political action
Asian Tigers newly industrialized territories of Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, and Singapore that have experienced rapid economic Growth and become semiperipheral within the world
chaebol South Korean term for the very large corporations in that country that, with government help, control numerous businesses and dominate the national economy
counterurbanization net loss of population from cities to smaller towns and rural areas
feng shui application of a collection of ancient principles of geomancy that are believed by adherents to ensure health, wealth, happiness, long life, and healthy offspring through the spatial organization of cities, buildings, and furniture
import substitution process by which domestic producers provide goods or services that were formerly bought from foreign producers
keiretsu Japanese business networks facilitated after World War II by the Japanese government in order to promote national recovery
Pacific Rim loosely defined region of countries that border the Pacific Ocean pinyin
Ring of Fire chain of seismic instability and volcanic activity that stretches from Southeast Asia through the Philippines, and down the Pacific coast of the Americas to the southern Andes in Chile, It is caused by the tension built up by moving tectonic plates
Silk Road ancient east-west trade route between Europe and China.
zaibatsu large Japanese conglomerate corporation
bonded labor labor that is pledged against an outstanding debt.
caste system of kinship groupings that is reinforced by language, religion, and occupation.
distributary river branch that flows away from the main stream.
microfinance programs programs that provide credit and savings to the self
monsoon seasonal reversal of wind flows in parts of the lower to middle latitudes, During the cool season, a dry monsoon occurs as dry offshore winds prevail; in hot summer months a wet monsoon occurs as onshore winds bring large amounts of rainfall.
orographic effect influence of hills and mountains in lifting airstreams, cooling the air, and thereby inducing precipitation.
Raj rule of the British in India.
Aborigines indigenous peoples of Australia
Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) association of more than 40 low lying, mostly island, countries that have formed an alliance to combat global warming, which threatens their existence through sea
Antarctic Treaty international agreement to demilitarize the Antarctic continent, delay mineral exploration, and preserve it for scientific research
atoll low lying island landform consisting of a circle of coral reefs around a lagoon, often associated with the rim of a submerged volcano or mountain
cargo cult Pacific island religious movements in which the dawn of a coming new age was associated with the arrival of goods brought by spiritual beings or foreigners
cattle station livestock enterprises where cattle (or sheep) are raised on large grazing leases in the remote regions of Australia
Closer Economic Relations (CER) Agreement agreement in 1983 that built upon an earlier New Zealand
common property resources resources such as fish or forests that are managed collectively by a community that has rights to the resource rather than it being owned by individuals
Dreamtime aboriginal worldview that links past and future, people and places, in a continuity that ensures respect for the natural world
ecological imperialism concept developed by historian Alfred Crosby to describe the way in which European organisms were able to take over the ecosystems of other regions of the world, often with devastating impacts on local peoples, flora, and fauna
ecosystem complex of living organisms, their physical environment, and all their relationships in a particular place
Great Artesian Basin world's largest reserve of underground water located in central Australia and under pressure so that water rises to the surface when wells are bored
intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) region where air flows together and rises vertically as a result of intense solar heating at the equator, often with heavy rainfall, and shifting north and south with the seasons
marsupial Australian mammal such as the kangaroo, koala, and wombat that gives birth to premature infants that then develop and feed from nipples in a pouch on the mother's body
Melanesia region of the western Pacific that includes the westerly and largest islands of Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Fiji, Vanuatu, and New Caledonia
Outback dry and thinly populated interior of Australia
ozone depletion loss of the protective layer of ozone gas that prevents harmful ultraviolet radiation from reaching Earth's surface and causing increases in skin cancer and other ecological damage
Polynesia central and southern Pacific islands that include the independent countries of Samoa, Tonga, the Cook Islands, Niue, and Tuvalu; American Samoa; the French territories of Wallis and Fortuna and French Polynesia
South Pacific Forum institution that promotes discussion and cooperation on trade, fisheries, and tourism between all of the independent and self
stolen generation Aboriginal children that were forcibly removed from their homes in Australia and placed in white foster homes or institutions
subsistence affluence achievement of a good standard of living through reliance on self
theory of island biogeography theory that smaller islands will generally be less biologically diverse than larger ones
Treaty of Waitangi 1840 agreement in which 40 Maori chiefs gave the Queen of England governance over their land and the right to purchase it in exchange for protection and citizenship,It provides the basis for Maori land rights and New Zealand's bicultural society
White Australia policy Australian policy, until 1975, that restricted immigration to people from northern Europe through a ranking that placed British and Scandinavians as the highest priority, followed by southern Europeans, with the goal of attaining a homogenized
Created by: thesirpucas



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