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Daniels random 4

Week 2 continued

tx of coag negative staph vancomycin and rifampin or gentamycin note: it is methicillin resistant, usually
SSSS effects what layer S. granulosum
normal pressures in heart RA= 5 RV = 25/5 PA = 25/10 LA = 10 LV = 125/10 A = 125/75
endometroid cyst chocolate cyst when filled with blood
dermoid cyst mature teratoma
hemorrhagic cyst 1. blood vessel rupture in cyst wall 2. growth with increased blood retention -> self resolves
theca lutein cyst 1. often bilateral/multiple 2. due to gondatotropin stimulation 3. assocaited with choriocarcinoma and moles
foscarnet pyroFOSphate analog -> DNA polymerase inhibitor 2. CMV retinitis when ganciclovir fails (neutropenia) 3. nephrotoxicity -> decreased Ca, decreased Mg -> seizures
terbinafine inhibits the fungal enzyme squalene epoxidase
use of terbinafine dermatophytosis -> esp onchomycosis
terbanifine SE LFT, visual disturbances
how do enterococci confer resistance to aminoglycosides? transferase enzymes that inactivate the drug by acetylation, phosphorylation, or adenylation
HIV in fetus can present how? oral thrush, interstitial pneumonia, lymphopenia
maternal prophylaxis with ziduvodine - NRTI HIV prevention in fetus
corpus luteum cyst hemorrhage into persistent corpus luteum regresses spontaneously
sarcoma botyroides variant of rhabdomyosarcoma girls under 4 years spindle shaped cells, desmin +
follicular cyst unruptured graafian follicle hyperestrinism, endometrial hyperplasia most common ovarian mass in young women
choriocarcinoma trophoblastic tissue; chorionic villi are not present
increased frequeny of theca lutein cyst choriocarcinoma
spreads to lung choriocarcinoma
schiller duval bodies resemble glomeruli yolk sac tumor
yellow friable solid mass yolk sac tumor
benign, and unilateral bladder like coffee bean nuclea brenner tumor
pale yellow tan in color and appears encapsulated brennor tumor
Meig's syndrome ovarian fibroma, ascitis, hydrothorax
granulosa cell tumor histo call exner bodies - small follicles filled with eosinophilic secretions - secretes estrogen
fried eggs oligodendroglia on H &E
what antibiotic can cause disulfiram like effects? metronidazole, procarbazine (alkylating agent), cephalosporin, 1st gen sulfonylurea (tolbutamide, chlorpromazine)
von Gierke's increased blood lactate decreased glucose 6 phosphatase
Cori's normal blood lactate decreased debranching enzyme (alpha 1,6 glucosidase) gluconegenesis intact
how to treat severe grave's ophthalmopathy corticosteroids -> decreased inflammatory infiltration
methadone benefits decreased withdrawal used for treating heroin abuse potent, long half life good oral ovailability
buspirone generalized anxiety stimulates serotonin receptor 1. does not cause sedation, addiction, tolerance does not interact with alcohol (vs. barbiturates and benzos)
hippocampus lesions anterograde amnesia -> no new memories
muscles of thenar abductor pollicis opponens pollicis flexor pollicis
hypothenar abductor digiti minimi opponens digiti minimi flexor digiti minimi OAF - oppose abduct flex
median nerve all C5-T1 "ape hand" -> thenar atrophy, decreased thumb opposiobility pope's blessing ulnar deviation of wrist on flexion
radial nerve C5-T1 extension bradioradialis supinator triceps BEST posterior arm dorsal hand and thumb
pure red cell aplasia thymoma parvovirus B19
tx for orotic aciduria oral uridine
measurement of which electrolyte in the urine helps determine the cause of metabolic alkalosis? Cl- determining volume status is important also
what can cause nipple inversion and retraction of skin Cooper's ligmanet infiltration by invasive breast cancer
mucinous cystadenocarcinoma pseduomyxoma peritonei - intraperitoneal accumulation of mucinous material from ovarian or appendiceal tumor
what do penicillins and cephalosporins bind? Penicillin binding proteins such as transpeptidases
tx of severe RSV bronchiolitis Ribaviron - nucleoside analog also used for Hep C
Li fraumeni syndrome AD p53 mutation increased cancers
acid labile picornaviradae virus - not an enterovirus rhinovirus
Other than histamine, what is a more specific cell marker of mast cell degranulation? tryptase
thiamine is a cofactor for which 3 enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase alpha ketoglutarate dehydrogenase transketolase -> can be measured to diagnosed thiamine deficiency (HMP pathway)
3 known host cell/virus binding HIV gp120 -> CD4 Ebv gp350 -> CD21 (B cells) parvovirus B19 -> erythrocyte P antigen
what adverse effects of drugs like hydralazine, minoxidil, arteriolar vasodilators? reflex tachycardia icnreased renin -> edema often given with sympatholytics and diuretics beta blockers
GFAP astrocyte marker
what does warfarin inhibit? epoxide reductase
what kind of dermatitis does poison ivy cause? allergic contact dermatitis
reaction of poison ivy? type 4
PDA murmur maximally intense at S1 or S2? S2
what 2 locations cannot use ketone bodies for energy? rbc (no mitrochondria), liver (lack the right enzyme)
CML vs. leukemoid reaction CML - low alkaline phosphatase -> due to immature granulocytes LR - increased alk phosphatase -> mature cells
which 2 maneuvers increased venous return to heart? lying down, end of valsava
decreased venous return to heart standing valsava strain
oligohydramnios placental insufficiency bilateral renal agenesis posterior urethral valves in male
fibroma bundles of spindle shaped fibroblasts groin pulling sensation
Vit A overuse arthralgias, fatigue, HA skin changes, alopecia sore throat HSM intracranial HTN visual changes teratogenic
what conditions can cause bell's palsy AIDS Lyme Sarcoidosis Tumor diabetes herpes simplex
which muscles close jaw medial pterygoid, masseter, temporalis
innervation of muscle that close jaw v3
priapism associated with sickle cell drugs - trazadone alpha blockers cocaine PDE5 inhibitor anticoagulants trauma
papilledema elevated optic disk with blurred margins bigger blind spot (hydrocephalus)
ADH nuclei supraoptic
oxytocin nuclei paraventricular
nucleus solitarius CN 7,9,10 visceral sensory info taste, baroreceptors, gut distention
differential cyanosis cyanosis only in lower body PDA (distal to subclavian) usually late onset shunt reversal
most likely outcome of Hep C stable chronic hepatitis
presentation of Conn's syndrome hypokalemia -> muscle weakness (hypokalemi paresis) hypokalemic alkalosis -> paresthesias
function of anterior hypothalamus cooling, parasympathetic
posterior hypothalamus heating, sympathetic
cerebellar vermis lesion truncal ataxia, dysarthria
cause of MI death pre hospital v-fib
cause of MI death in hospital ventricular failrue
where does testes drain para-aortic
prostate drain internal iliac
bladder drain superior = external iliac inferior = internal iliac
sigmoid colon inferior mesenteric
more severe form of SJS toxic epiermal necrolysis
what increases peripheral metabolism of levodopa B6
confers better prognosis in ALL t(12,21)
ewing's sracoma t(11,22)
what drains to the superficial inguinal lymph nodes skin from umbilicus down except posterior calf (popliteal ) anus up to dentate line external genitalia
3 drugs that can cause seizure isoniazid imipenim buproprion
cause of preeclampsia placental ischemia due to impaired vasodilation of spiral arteries -> increased vascular tone
preeclampsia HTN, proteinuria, edema
mittelscherz blood from ruptured follicle causes peritoneal irritation that can mimic appendicitis
8 graulomatous diseases 1. fungi 2. Tb 3. sarcoidosis 4. crohn's 5. trepnema pallidum 6. berryliosis 7. bartonella henslae 8. leprosy
cachexia mediated by IL6, TNF alpha, IFN gamma
in platelets conents of dense granules ADP, calcium
in platelets contents of alpha granules vWF, fibrinogen
pitching injury infraspinatus
arm lateral rotators infraspinatus, teres minor
medial arm rotators subscapularis
arm adductors subscapularis, teres minor
which antipsychotics improve both postiive and negative symptoms atypical
unhappy triad ACL Medial leminiscus MCL
2 most common nongonococcal urethritis causes CHlaymydia (has cell wall but no peptidoglycan) ureaplasma (no cell wall at all)
tx of chlamydia azithromycin
nerves responsible for erection pelvic (parasympathetic)
nerves responsible for emission hypogonadotropic (sympathetic)
nerves responsible for ejaculation pudendal (visceral and somatic)
gene mutations in alzheimer's early onset APP (21) presenilin 1 (14) presenilin 2(1)
gene mutations in alzheimer's late onset APO E4 (19)
which mutation is protective for alzheimers APO E2 (19)
examples of cutaneous mycosis pityriasis versicolor (malassezia furfur) dermatophytosis
examples of subcutaneous mycosis sporthrix
exampels of systemic mycosis histo, cocci, blastomycosis
opportunistic mycosis mucor, rhizzopus, candida, aspergillus
legionella pneumophilia usual host smoker
legionella pneumophilia presentation high grade fever, diarrhea, HA, confusion, pneumonia symptoms
legionella pneumophilia labs hyponatremia, gram negative rod
sputum sample of legionella pneumophilia often absent
dx of legionella pneumophilia urine antigen
fibrocystic breast disease tpyes fibrosis - hyperplasia sclerosing - calcification, increases acini and intralobular fibrosis cystic - fluid filled blue dome epithelial hyperplasia - increased carcinoma risk w/ atypical cells; greater than 30 years of age
seminoma painless, homogenous testicular enlargement large cells in lobules with watery cytoplasm fried egg radiosensitive good prognosis
cerebellar input nerves climbing mossy fibers
what tremor is associated with cerebellar dysfunction intention tremor
which layer in acanthosis nigrans? s. spinosum
lichin planus purple, piuritic, polygonal, plaque, planar associated with hep C
myotonic dytrophy CTG repeat myotonia gonad atrophy frontal balding cataracts
atrophy of what fibers for myotonic dystrophy? type I fibers
how is ehec diff from other e. coli? does not ferment sorbitol does not produce glucuronidase
PCOS tx weight loss 2. OCP or medroxyprogesterone 3. clomiphine 4. spironolactone
pityriasis rosea herald patch christmas tree distribution multiple papule eruptions remits spontaneously
patients with porcelein gallbladders are al increased risk of? gall baldder cancer
how is porcelain gallbladder formed? calcium laden gallbaldder in some patients with chronic cholecystitis
sertraline SSRI sexual dysfunction as SE
what anticholinesterase can cross the bBB? physostigmine what is it good for? reverse symptoms of atropine poisoning also for glaucoma
ALS defect SOD1
ALS tx riluzole - decreased glutamate release
tx for TCA induced cardiac abnormalities (hypotension,increased QRS) NaHCO3
thoracic outlet syndrome cervical rib compresses subclavian artery and inferior trunk -> klumpke's palsy
phenytoin tox megaloblastic anemia gingival hyperplasia hirsutisim increased CP450 fetal hydrantoin SLE like NYSTAGMUS, diplopia ataxia sedation generalized lymphadenopathy (pseudolymphoma)
embryonal carcinoma painful
Created by: ilovemusic007



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