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Daniel's random 3

Week 2

QuestionAnswer
porphryia cutanea tarda affected enzyme urophorphrinogen decarboxylase
porphryia cutanea tarda accumulated substance uroporphyin
blistering cutaneous photosensitivity porphryia cutanea tarda
adult type coarctation of aorta associated with berry anneurysms aortic arch HTN Cv failure, ruptured dissecting AA, intracranial hemorrhage
difference in immune response to live vs. killed vaccine increased mucosal IgA in live
tb virulence factor cord factor, a mycoside -> grow as "serpentine" cords causes neutrophil inhibition, mitochondrial destruction and increased TNF sulfatides are responsible for inhibiting fusion of lysosomes to phagosomes
seborrheic keratosis tan to brown, round, flat, greasy coinlike lesion looks stuck on or pasted on head, trunk, extremities pigmented squamous epithelial proliferation with keratin filled cysts (horn cysts) melanoma on differential
Meyer's loop path temporal lobe pie in teh sky loops around inferior horn of lateral ventricle -> inferior retina
dorsal optic radiation parietal lobe shortest path via internal capsule superior retina
aresenic poisoning garlic breath
lichen planus piuritic, purple, planar, plaque, polyganal
area in brain most susceptible to ischemic damage pyrimidal cells of hippocampus and neocortex purkinje cells of cerebellum
bleeding in abruptio placentae 3rd trimester, painful
placenta accreta massive, post deliveryh
placeta previa painless, any trimester
genes affected in HPV 16 E6 - inhibits p53 suppressor tumor
genes affected in hPv 18 E7 - inhibits Rb suppressor tumor
endometritis tx cefoxitin ticarcillin-clavulanate ampicillin sulbactam
endometriosis tx danazol
adenomyosis tx hysterectomy
struma ovarrii contains functional thyroid tissue
follicular cyst unruptured graafian follicle associated with increased estrogen and endometrial hyperplasia most common ovarian mass in young women
ovarian cancer ca 125
serious cystadenocarcinoma 45% ovarian tumor bilateral psammoma bodies
serious cystadenoma 20% ovarian tumor bilateral, fallopian tube like epithelium
dz associated with berry aneurysm marfan ehler's danlos APDKD
charcot bouchard micro aneurysm chronic htn basal ganglia, thalamus - small vessels
What is the risk of occuring 2-3 days post subarachnoid hemorrhage vaspospasm due to blood breakdown tx. nimodipine
gliblastoma multiforme stain GFAP pseudopalisading pleomorphic tumor cells -> border central necrosis and hemorrhage
meningioma convexities of hemispheres and parasagital region arachnoid cells external to brain spindle cells concentrically arrange in a whorled pattern psammoma bodies
S 100 melanoma schwannoma (3rd)
pilocytic atrocytoma GFAP cystic and solid rosenthal fibers -> eosinophilic, corkscrew fibers good benign
sleep apnea pulmonary HTN systemic HTN obesity arrythmia sudden death
5 things in MS plaques oligodendrocytic depletion monocytes and lymphocytes fibrillary atrocytosis -> reaction to injury lipid laden macrophage- > phagocytize products of myelin breakdown axon demyelination
gout urate monosodium need shapeed negative birerifringent yellow on PARALLEL blue on perpindicular assymmetric big toe
pseudogout calcium pyrophosphate rhomboid weakly positive birerifringent blue on parapllel light large joint knee
sarcoidosis erythema nodosum bell's palsy granuklomas with Schaumann and asteroid bodies uveoparotitis interstitial fibrosis
what does chronic lymphadema predispose to lymphangiosarcoma (angiosarcoma of skin)
sicca syndrome dry eyes, dry mouth, nasal and vaginal dryness, chronic bronchitis, reflux esophagitis
osteopetrosis marble bone disease abnormal osteoclasts -> thickened dense bones prone to fractures
paget's disease (osteitis deformans) increased osteoclast and osteoblast activity abnormal bone architecture mosaic pattern long bone chalk stick fractures
osteoporosis decreased bone mass trabecular spondy bone loses mass and interconnections normal bone mineralization and labs
protease inhibitor SE lipodystrophy hyperglycemia P450 inhibition
on histology, where are parietal cells located in stomach superficial gastric glands
endochondrial ossification longitudinal bone chondrocytes -> cartilage -> woven bone -> lamellar bone
membranous ossification flat bones (skull, facial bones, axial skeleton) woven bone formed directly w/o cartilage; then remodeled to lamellar bone
effect of NO on MLCK NO -> cGMP inhibition of MLCK increased MLC phosphatase relaxation
affect of action potential on MLCK AP -> SM mem depolarization -> open voltage gated Ca channels -> increased Ca cytoplasm -> ca binds calmoduli -> activates MLCK -> contraction
type 2 fibers white fibers, fast twitch, increased anaerobic glycolysis
type 1 fibers "one slow red ox" slow tiwtch red fibers increased mitochondria and myoglobin concentration; increased oxidative phosphorylation sustained contraction
tau protein insoluble cytoskeletal elements
MS findings increased protein IgG in CSF oligoclonal bands diagnostic MRI gold standard -> periventricular plaques (oligdendrocyte loss and reactive gliosis) -> preservation of axons
tx MS beta interferon immunosupression natalizumab
natalizumab crohn's and MS educing the ability of inflammatory immune cells to attach to BBB and itnestine
Guillain barre increased CSF protein with normal cell count -> albuminocytologic dissociation increased protein -> papilledema
which enzyme is associated with increased adenomatous polyp formation COX 2
when is S3 heard best end of expiration
where does facial nerve arise caudal pons
where does hypoglossal arise rostral medulla
occulomotor rostral midbrain
trochlear level of inferior colliculus, behind midbraine
trigeminal level of middle cerebellar peduncle in pons
vitamin B5 pentothenate cofactor for pyruvate dehdrogenase active form is coA cofactor for acyl transfers and fatty acid synthase oxaloacetate + CoA -> citrate
niacin SE flushing hyperglycemia (acanthosis nigracans) hyperuricemia (gout) hepatitis
most common cause of E. coli bacteremia UTI
which drugs for malignant HTN nitroprusside fenoldopam diazoxide
increases renal perfusion used for malignant HTN fenoldopam - selective D1 receptor agonist
triggers for candida vaginitis antiobiotic use -> suppresses normal bacterial flora corticosteroids DM immunosuppression contraceptive use -> alters vaginal pH
GVHD is mediated by which cells against what? T lymphocytes of donor tissues sensitizes against MHC antigens of recipient
what organs are often involved in GVHD? skin, liver, intestine
what process is affected in hemochromatosis iron absorption from GI tract
stimulation of which adrenergic receptor in uterus -> inhibition of uterin contractions (tocolysis) or relaxation beta 2
which causes mydriasis? alpha 1 -> via contraction of occular pupillary dilator muscle
3 drugs that cause seizure imipenim buproprion INH -> give with pyridoxine
squamous cell carcinoma of skin causes sun, arsenic
arsenic inhibits lipoic acid -> garlic breath, rice water stools angiosarcoma SCC
SCC of skin associated wtih? chronic draining sinuses
SCC skin varian keratoacanthoma -> growth rapidly then regresses
ECG triad in WPW delta waves wide QRS decreased PR interval
tuberous sclerosis Hamartomas CNS and skin Adenoma sebaceum Mental retardation Ash leaf spots Rhabdomyoma Tubersous sclerosis autOsomal dominant mental retardation renal Angiomyolipoma Seizures VARIAble penetrANCE
type of penetrance for tuberous sclerosis variable penetrance
migraine cause irritation of CNV and release of substance P, CGRP, vasoactive peptides
tx for migraine sumatriptan for acute propanolol nsAIDS
charcot marie tooth dsiease hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy
metachromic leukodystrophy AR lysosomal storage disease arylsulfatase A deficiency -> buildup of sulfatides -> impaired myelin sheath production
acute disseminated encephalomyelitis multifocal perivenular infllmation demyelination after infection or vaccination
how does SVR respond to exercise decreased vasodilation at muscle to shunt blood these note: BP only mildly goes up
on x ray how do you identify the lunate bone the more medial of the 2 carpal bones that articular with the radius "thumb swings on the trapezium"
ethambutol decreased carbohydrate polymerization in mycobacterium cell wall by blocking arabinosyltransferase Tb
ethambutol tox optic neuropathy -> red/green color blindness -> central scotoma -> decreased vision
dysgerminoma histo, association, labs sheet of uniform cells Turner's hCG, LDH
choriocarcinoma trophoblastic tissue -> NO chorionic villi
choriocarcinoma increases frequency of? theca lutein cysts
marker for choriocarcinoma hCG
choriocarinoma can spread to? lungs
yolk sac (endodermal sinus) tumor yellow, friable, solid schiller-duval bodies (resemble glomeruli)
marker for yolk sac AFP
constriction control pupillary sphincter muscle (circular muscle) parasympathtetic CN3 from edinger-westphal nucleus -> ciliary ganglion
dilation myDRiasis control pupillary dilator muscle (aka radial muscle) sympthatic T1 preganglionic sympathetic -> superior cervical ganglion -> postganglionic sympathetic -> long ciliary muscle
`on CN3 cross section, which part is output to ocular muscles inside affected by vascular disease (i.e. DM sorbitol) ptosis, down and out, nonreactive pupils
`on CN3 cross section, which part is output to parasympathetic output outside affected by compression (PCOM aneurysm, herniation) blown pupil use pupillary light reflex
peripheral vertigo inner ear issue (most common) delayed horizontal nystagmus
ventral vertigo brain stem or cerebrellar lesion immediate nystagmus in any direction, may change directions
in which compartment of the cell does the pentose phosphate pathway occur? aka HMP shunt cytoplasm
cavernous hemangiomas bilateral RCC hemangioblastoma -> retina, brain stem cerebellum pheo AD VHL on 3
cafe au lait spots lisch nodules (pigmented iris harmartomas) skin neurofibromas optic gliomas NF type 1
100% penetrance NF type 1
first line treatment of toxo sulfadiazine pyrimethamine
sideroblastic anemia x-linked detect in delta ALA synthase gene -> decreased heme synthesis
histo of sideroblastic anemia ringed sideroblast with iron laden mitochondria
sideroblastic anemia labs increased Fe, increased ferritin, normal TIbC
treatment of sideroblastic anemia B6
histology of prion disease spongiform (vacuoles) changes in gray matter
change in PrP PrPc -> PrPsc sheet resistant to proteases beta pleated
preferred drug in antipsychotic induced parkinsonism antimuscarinic like benztropine
which one is contraindicated? levodopa -> can precipitate psychosis
necrotizing fasciitis deeper tissue injury anaerobic bacteria and s. pyogenes crepitus from methane and co2 production
Created by: ilovemusic007