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Social and Cultural Change

age–sex (or age–gender) pyramid; also population pyramid a graphic representation of the age and gender structure of a society
census a count of the entire population of a country
concentric zones model a theory in urban sociology holding that population characteristics and land use change systematically as you move away from the center of the city, such that they are arranged roughly as a series of rings around the center of the city
crude birthrate the number of babies born each year for every 1000 members of the population
crude death rate the number of deaths each year per 1000 members of the population
demographic transition theory the theory that societies pass through phases based on economic development, which affects the birth and death rates
demography the scientific study of population
ecological demography a field that combines the studies of demography and human ecology
ecological globalization the worldwide dispersion of problems involving relationships between humans and the physical environment
emigration (vs. immigration) migration of people from one society to another (also called out- migration)
gentrification the movement of the upper class into older central-city neighborhoods, leading to renovation of buildings and a turnover in neighborhood population
gemeinschaft German for community, a state characterized by a sense of common feeling among the members of a society, including strong personal ties, sturdy primary group memberships, and a sense of personal loyalty to one another; associated with rural life
gesellschaft German for society, a form of social organization characterized by a high division of labor, less prominence of personal ties, the lack of a sense of community among the members, and the absence of a feeling of belonging; associated with urban life
human ecology the study of the interdependence between humans and their physical environment
immigration (vs. emigration) the migration of people into a society from outside (also called in-migration)
infant mortality rate the number of deaths per year of infants less than one year old, for every thousand live births
life expectancy the average number of years individuals and the group can expect to live
Malthusian theory after T.R. Malthus, the principle that a population tends to grow faster than the subsistence (food) level needed to sustain it
Overurbanization a situation common among less-developed countries, in which the population of cities expands beyond what can be supported by the economy of these cities
population density the number of people per square mile
rational choice theory theory positing that choices human beings make are guided by logical reason
sex ratio (gender ratio) the number of males per 100 females
urbanization the process by which a community acquires the characteristics of city life
vital statistics information about births, deaths, marriages, and migration
Social Change & Social Movements Glossary
collective behavior behavior that occurs when the usual conventions are suspended and people collectively establish new norms of behavior in response to an emerging situation
cyclical theory the idea that societies go through a "life cycle," as for example from idealistic through hedonistic culture and back to idealistic
evolutionary theory the idea that societies go through stages of advancement, as from structurally undifferentiated to more complex and structurally differentiated
globalization increased economic, political, and social interconnectedness and interdependence among societies in the world
macrochange gradual transformations in a society that occur on a broad scale and affect many aspects of a society making cost/benefit analysis in deciding, for example, how many children to have
microchange subtle alterations in the day-today interaction between people, such as a fad "catching on"
mobilization the process by which social movements and their leaders secure people and resources for their movement
modernization a process of social and cultural change that is initiated by industrialization and followed by increased social differentiation and division of labor
multidimensional evolutionary theory a theory predicting that over time societies follow not one but several evolutionary paths
new social movement theory a theory about social movements linking culture, ideology, and identity conceptually to explain how new identities are forged within social movements
political process theory explanation of social movements positing that movements achieve success by exploiting a combination of internal organizational factors as well as external changes in society
radical movements social movements that seek fundamental change in the structure of society
reactionary movements social movements organized to resist change or to reinstate an earlier social order that participants perceive to be better
reform movements social movements that seek change through legal or other mainstream political means, by working within existing institutions
resource mobilization theory theory of how social movements develop that focuses on how movements gain momentum by successfully garnering organizational resources
social movements a group that acts with some continuity and organization to promote or resist change in society
unidimensional evolutionary theory a theory that predicts that societies over time follow a single path from simple and structurally undifferentiated to more complex and structurally differentiated
Created by: 241152