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Psych 230 EXAM 2

Infancy & Childhood

Piaget's Cognitive Theory Children actively construct schemes for interpreting their experiences.
Piaget's Cognitive theory includes: A state of equilibrium, A new idea of thought, Disequilibrium, then Adaption. Adaption can include: assimilation- sticking with old ideas OR accomodation: adjustment so new idea matches reality.
Object Permanence Understanding that objects still exist, even when they are out of sight. Babies under 8 months due not grasp this concept.
Piaget's stages of development Sensorimotor (0-2), Pre-operational (2-7), Concrete operations (8-11), Formal operations(12+)
Sensorimotor Stage A stage of exploration to figure out how the world works. We think with our senses and explore with gradual developing motor skills.
Piaget's Primary Circular Reaction: Occurs from 1 to 4 months. Repetitive self-focused exploration by accident. ie- sucking toes or thumb
Piaget's Secondary Circular Reaction: Occurs from 4 to 12 months. Repetitive object focused exploration. At 8 months, exploring becomes intentional.
Piaget's Teritiary Circular Reaction: Occurs from 1 to 2 years. Intentional "flexible" exploration.
Symbolic capacity Occurs during the teritary circular reaction at about 18 months. When an infant is capable of holding on to memories to symbolize what is not physically there. Helps them understand.
Sensorimotor stage: Deferred Imitation Babies at about 8 months, will imitate an adults previous day actions, signifying that they remember.
Sensorimotor stage: Make-believe play emerges at 1 year
Sensorimotor stage Means-end Behavior A 2 year olds ability to mentally solve a problem. ie- turn the knob to open a door.
What are some flaws with Piagets Sensorimotor stage? 1. Piaget underestimated infants. Object permanance really occurs around 3-4 months 2. Piaget over emphasized stages. Cognitive development is actually gradual.
What is an accurate assumption from Piaget's sensorimotor stage? That infants actively adapt through a process that evaluates reality.
What are 3 ways infants learn through people? 1. Looking and attention ( joint attention) 2. Emotions adults display 3. Behaviors
What is cooing? When does it occur? Cooing is when an infant makes vowel sounds starting at 1-2 months.
What is Babbling? When does it occur? Babbling is vowel and consonant sounds at 3-4 months.
What are the two types of Gestures babies use that are important for learning language? Declarative- when a baby points, indicating something used to be there. Imperative- A baby declares a need (arms up to get picked up)
Holophrase A babies first words are verbalized at around 1 year.
Telegraphic speech When an infant puts 2 words together. ie- "me eat"
What are 3 ways we soak up language? 1. It is biologically programmed- phoneme perception 2. We are motivated to communicate- turn-taking 3. We are surrounded by language- infant directed speech (good)
Is infant-directed speech harmful to a child's development? No, infant-directed speech has actually been proven to help infants learn by getting their attention and slowing down the phrases so they can process them. They are also more in-tuned to the tone versus the content when they're younger.
When does the social smile first start? 6 weeks.
When does the social smile first appear from social interaction? 2 months.
What are some of the infants developing skills of social interactions? Eye contact, visual tracking, cooing, and reaching are all rewarding for parents to reciprocate.
In the video clip displaying an example of face-to-face interaction, What was the study performed and what were the findings? Measuring a childs reaction if their mom disengaged in interaction. When the mother did a "still face paradigm" the child flailed his arms and tried to entice the mother to reengage. This study found that children understand how social interaction works.
What are 2 discriminating social patterns that occur from 7-8months? Separation anxiety & Stranger reactions (weariness around unfamiliar people.)
What is social referencing? When does it occur? Social referencing occurs from 11 to 12 months and is when infants look to the primary caregiver to understand the environment to determine what is safe and unsafe.
What is an attachment relationship? When does it occur? How is security measured? An attachment relationship is a close and enduring emotional bond. All infants form one but, the security varies. Occurs at 1 year. The security is measured by "the reunion".
What are the 4 infant attachment classifications 1. Secure 2. Avoidant 3. Anxious-ambivalent 4. Disorganized
Why is having a secure attachment important? The infant is able to regulate emotions, explore the environment, and learn about relationships.
In Eriksons Psychosocial Theory, what two outcomes that can occur in INFANCY? (ages 0-1) Infancy can produce a basic trust (positive outcome) or mistrust (negative outcome)
In Eriksons Psychosocial Theory, what two outcomes can occur in TODDLERHOOD? (ages 1-2) Toddlerhood can produce autonomy, the desire to be independent, which occurs around 18 months. If we don't allow toddlers to be autonomists (little scientists/terrible 2's), then shame & doubt can occur from parents doing tasks for us (negative).
What are normative emotions? The pattern of development of emotions that a typical infant shows.
When does the primary emotion happiness occur in an infants 1st year of life? Happiness occurs around 3 to 4 months.
When does the primary emotions anger & sadness (negative arousals) occur in an infants 1st year of life? Anger & sadness occurs around 4-6 months
When does the primary emotion fear (a negative arousal) occur in infants? Fear occurs around 6 months
When does the secondary emotions, embarrassment & shame occur in early childhood? Embarrassment & shame occur around 18- 24 months
When does the secondary emotions, pride, guilt, and envy occur in childhood early childhood? Pride, guilt, and envy occur at 3 years of life.
When does a childs self-concept develop and what is it linked to? A child's self-concept develops at around 18 months of age and is linked to secondary emotions
What is self-concept? Self concept is when we know others are evaluating us and what their standards are.
What is the shift from external to internal expectations in early childhood? External expectations are when a reaction from another person/parent influences the child to feel a certain way. As we get older we internalize the expectations of others instead of looking for cues from our parents.
Temperament constitutionally-based (affected by genes) individual differences in emotional & behavioral responses to environment that tend to be stable.
Thomas & Chess's longitudinal study on TEMPERAMENT placed babies in three different categories: Easy, slow-to-warm-up, difficult (risk-factor for future psychological problems)
Intense arousal to external stimuli in infancy (4 months) is linked to what type of temperament in the child's future? shyness/inhibition
How does temperament influence child development? May enhance vulnerability or resiliency. "Goodness of Fit" can either positively or negatively. The more EXTREME temperaments influence development.
What is symbolic thinking in early childhood? A child can soak up language, participate in make-believe play, and understand dual representation ( an object and what it represents)
What is the main limitation of a child's thought process? they are illogical
What is logical thinking in middle childhood? The child has realistic reasoning, multiple dimensions of thinking, and can process numbers and order.
What is concrete thinking in middle childhood? The child can be logical, but no think abstractly
Appearance reality Childrens understanding of the basic reality. ie- 4 yr old looks at outward experience, 8 yr old focuses on the logical concept.
Conservation tasks The ability to operate tasks logically
Decentration When a child decenters away from a problem, they are able to think about more than 1 variable at a time.
Reversability If we perform a logical operation, we can reverse the action back to it's original state.
Hierarchal classification Distinguishing between groups
What are 2 critiques of Piaget's work with ideas about childhood? He underestimated pre-school aged children and downplayed social context of cognitive development.
What is Vygotsky's sociocultural theory? The theory that children develop in a social and cultural context. And what the mentor does, directly affects how the child develops.
Zone of Proximal Development The area where learning occurs. The difference btwn what the child can do by himself and his potential
Scaffolding used to teach new skills. Tailoring a concept to fit that certain age group, so a child can grasp an understanding.
Would a child in the preoperational stage of development be more likely to center or decenter? center
metacognition awareness and understanding of mental activity
Desire Psychology Occurs around 2 to 3 years. "What people want" determines behavior
Belief-Desire Psychology Occurs around 4+ years. Children understand "What people want" AND "What people know". ie- a child might understand that they can deceive the babysitter since they know they each have separate minds of thought.
Executive function A child is able to distinguish a change in rules for example. Our brains multi-task
In Eriksons Psychosocial Theory, what two outcomes that can occur in EARLY CHILDHOOD ? In early childhood, initiative develops, joy to reach tasks and goals. Helps build self-esteem. However, if the child is fearful, he'll develop a sense of guilt.
In Eriksons Psychosocial Theory, what two outcomes that can occur in MIDDLE CHILDHOOD? In middle childhood, industry develops. The child is interested in developing a sense of competence and social skills. If child is unable to build confidence, then inferiority develops.
How would a being from early childhood describe their self-concept? The child would use observable characteristics as if they are in a bubble. (brown hair, sex, activities.
How would a being from 5 to 6 years of age describe their self-concept? The child would use psychological characteristics that describe emotions and attitudes.
How would a being from 7 to 8 years of age describe their self-concept? The child would use psychological traits & competencies are more understood. They also compare the traits to others. Balance, integration, and assessment begin.
How would one in early childhood describe their self-esteem? unrealistically positive
How would one in middle childhood describe their self-esteem? with more realistic expectations than early childhood. Kids start to evaluate themselves close to their peers.
What parenting recommendations would you have for a parent trying to keep a high self-esteem? Be supportive but, not too overbearing.
How would a mastery orientated child view their successes and failures? A success would be associated with their abilities and hard work. If they fail at a task, then they will understand that they can improve by changing controllable factors.
How would a learned helplessness child view their successes and failures? A success would be due to external factors such as a teacher graded easier than normal. Failure is inevitable, since the child will most likely give up since hard work will make no difference in their eyes.
How should a parent praise a child in order for them to have mastery orientated achievement? Focus on the child's effort instead of praising their traits. ie- "All that hard work really paid off!" vs. "Good job, you're so smart."
When does the concept of gender in a childs mind develop? From 2- 3 years of age. Before the age of 6/7/ gender is only external.
Created by: laurenmm21