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Step 1: Associations

QuestionAnswer
Actinic (solar) keratosis Precursor to squamous cell carcinoma
Acute gastric ulcer associated w/ CNS injury Cushing's ulcer (increase ICP stimulates vagal gastric secretion)
Acute gastric ulcer associated w/ severe burns Curling's ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in sloughing of gastric mucosa)
Alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon Skip lesions (Crohn's)
Aneurysm, dissecting HTN
Aortic aneurysm, abdominal and descending aorta Atherosclerosis
Aortic aneurysm, ascending Marfan syndrome
Atrophy of the mamillary bodies Wernicke's encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency, causing ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and confusion)
Autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage) Sickle cell anemia (HbS)
Bacteria associated w/ gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and stomach cancer H. pylori
Bacterial meningitidis (adults, elderly) Neisseria meningitidis
Bacterial meningitidis (newborns, kids) Group B strep, S. pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis
Benign melanocytic nevus Spitz nevus (most common in 1st 2 decades)
Bleeding disorder w/GpIb deficiency Bernard Soulier disease (defect in platelet adhesion to von willebrand factors)
Brain tumors (adults) Supratentorial: mets > astrocytoma > meningioma > schwannoma
Bran tumor (kids) Infratentorial: medulloblastoma (cerebellum) or Supratentorial: craniopharyngioma
Breast cancer Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (in US 1 in 9 women will develop breast cancer)
Breast mass 1. Fibrocystic change 2. Carcinoma (in post menopausal women)
Breast tumor (benign) Fibroadenoma
Cardiac primary tumor Rhabdomyoma (often seen in tuberous sclerosis)
Cardiac manifestation in lupus Libman-Sacks endocarditis!!! Nonbacterial, affecting both sides of the mitral valve
Cardiac tumor in adults 1. Metastasis 2. Primary Myxoma
Cerebellar tonsillar manifestation Chiari malformation (often presents with progressive hydrocephalus or syringomyelia)
Chronic arrhythmia A Fib (associated w/ high risk of emboli)
Chronic atrophic gastritis Predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)
Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina DES exposure
Compression fracture Osteoporosis (type I: post menopausal women; type II: elderly man or woman)
CAH, hypotension 21-hydroxylase deficiency
Congenital cardiac anomaly VSD
Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia Dubin-Johnson syndrome (inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin in bile)
Constrictive pericarditis Tuberculosis (developing world), SLE (developed world)
Coronary artery involved in thrombosis LAD > RCA > LCA
Cretinism Iodine deficit / hypothyroidism
Cushing's syndrome 1. Corticosteroid therapy 2. Excess ACTH secretion by pituitary 3. Small cell lung carcinoma
Cyanosis (early: less common) Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus
Cyanosis (late; more common) VSD, ASD, PDA
Death in CML Blast crisis
Death in SLE Lupus nephropathy
Dementia 1. Alzheimer's disease 2. Multiple infarcts
Demyelinating disease in young women Multiple sclerosis
DIC gram negative sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burn trauma
Dietary deficit Iron
Diverticulum in pharynx Zenker's diverticulum
Ejection click Aortic/pulmonic stenosis
Esophageal cancer Squamous cell carcinoma (WORLDWIDE), Adenocarcinoma (US)
Food poisoning (exotoxin mediated) S. aureus, B. cereus
Glomerulonephritis (ADULTS) Berger's disease (IgA nephropathy)
Gynecologic malignancy Endometrial carcinoma (most common in US); Cervical carcinoma (most common worldwide)
Heart murmur, congenital MVP (mitral valve prolapse)
Heart valve in bacterial endocarditis Mitral (rheumatic fever), Tricuspid (IV drug abuse), Aortic (2nd affected in rheumatic fever)
Helminth infection 1. Enterobius vermicularis 2. Ascaris lumbricoides
Hematoma (epidural) Rupture of mid meningeal artery (trauma; lentiform shaped)
Hematoma (subdural) Rupture of bridging veins (crescent shaped)
Hemochromatosis Multiple blood transfusions, or hereditary HFE mutation (can result in CHF, "bronze diabetes" and increase risk hepatocellular carcinoma
Hepatocellular carcinoma Cirrhotic liver (associated with hep B and C)
Hereditary bleeding disorder von Willebrand's disease
Hereditary harmless jaundice Gilbert's syndrome (benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)
HLA-B27 Ankylosing spondylitis, Reiters syndrome, UC, psoriasis
HLA-DR3 or DR4 DM type I, RA, SLE
Holosystolic murmur VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation
Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasis Virchows triad (results in venous thrombosis)
Hypertension, secondary Renal disease
Hypoparathyroidism Accidental excision during thyroidectomy
Infection secondary to blood transfusion Hep C
Infections in chronic granulomatous disease Catalase positive - E. Coli, Staph Aureus, Aspergillus
Kidney stones 1. Calcium = radioopaque 2. Struvite = radioopaque 3. Uric acid = radiolucent
Late cyanotic shunt Uncorrected L-->R becomes R-->L, Eisenmenger's syndrome (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA)
Liver disease Alcoholic cirrhosis
Lysosomal storage disease Gauchers disease
Male cancer Prostatic carcinoma
Malignancy associated with NON infectious fever Hodgkins lymphoma
Malignant skin tumor Basal cell carcinoma
Mental retardation Down syndrome, Fragile X
Metastases to bone Breast, lung, thyroid, testes, prostate, kidney
Metastases to brain Lung, breast, skin, kidney, GI
Metastases to liver Colon, gastric, pancreatic, breast, lung carcinomas
Mitochondrial inheritance Disease occurs in both males and females, inherited thru females only
Mitral valve stenosis Rheumatic heart disease
Mixed motor neuron disease ALS
Myocarditis Coxsackie B
Neoplasm (kids) 1. ALL, 2. Cerebellar medulloblastoma
Nephrotic syndrome (adults) Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
Nephrotic syndrome (kids) Minimal change disease
Neuron migration failure Kallmann syndrome
Nosocomial pneumonia Klebsiella, E coli, Pseudomonas
Obstruction of male genital tract BPH
Opening snap Mitral stenosis
Opportunistic infections in AIDS Pneumocytis jiroveci
Osteomyelitis S. aureus
Osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease Salmonella
Osteomyelitis in IV drug abuse S. aureus, Pseudomonas
Ovarian metastasis from gastric carcinoma Krukenberg tumor (mucin secreting signet ring cells)
Pancreatitis Acute and chronic Acute - gallstones, alcohol, Chronic - alcohol, CF
Patient with ALL, CLL, AML, CML ALL: child, CLL: adult, AML: adult about 60, CML: adult 30-60
Pelvic inflammatory disease Neisseria gonorrhoeae (monoarticular arthritis)
Philadelphia chromosome 9; 22 (CML) bcr-abl
Pituitary tumor 1. Prolactinoma 2. Somatotropic "acidophilic" adenoma
Primary amenorrhea Turner syndrome XO
Primary bone tumor Multiple myeloma
Primary hyperaldosteronism Adenoma of adrenal cortex
Primary parathyroidism 1. Adenomas, 2. Hyperplasia, 3. Carcinoma
Primary liver cancer Hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemachromatosis, a1-antitrypsin)
Pulmonary HTN COPD
Renal tumor Renal cell carcinoma (associated with vHL and adult polycystic kidney disease
Right heart failure, due to a pulmonary cause Cor pulmonale
S3 increase ventricular filling
S4 Still hypertrophic ventricle
Secondary hyperparathyroidism Hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease
Sexually transmitted disease Chlamydia (usually coinfected with gonorrhea)
SIADH Small cell carcinoma of lung
Site of diverticula Sigmoid colon
Sites of atherosclerosis Abdominal aorta > coronary > popliteal > carotid
Stomach cancer Adenocarcinoma
Stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels ZE syndrome
t (14; 18) Follicular lymphoma
t (8; 14) Burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc)
t (9; 22) Philadelphia chromosome (CML)
Temporal arteritis Risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of opthalmic artery
Testicular tumor Seminoma
Thyroid cancer Papillary carcinoma
Tumor in women Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent, non precancerous)
Tumor of infancy Hemangioma (usually regresses spontaneously by childhood)
Tumor of the adrenal medulla (adults) Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)
Tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids) Neuroblastoma
Type of Hodgkin's Nodular sclerosis -vs. mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion
Type of NON Hodgkin's Diffuse large cell
UTI E. coli, staph saprophytocus (young women)
Viral encephalitis HSV-1
Vitamin def Folic acid (pregnant women, are at high risk; body stores only 3-4 month supply; prevents neural tube defects
Created by: 092309