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digestive syst a&p

digestion system a&p

Ingestion occurs when materials enter the digestive tract via the mouth.
Mechanical Processing crushing and shearing that makes materials easier to propel along the digestive tract
Digestion the chemical breakdown of food into small organic fragments suitable for absorption by the digestive epithelium.
Secretion the release of water, acids, enzymes, buffers, and salts by the epithelium of the digestive tract and by glandular organs.
Absorption the movement of organic substrates, electrolytes, vitamins, and water across the digestive epithelium and into the interstitial fluid of the digestive tract.
Excretion the removal of waste products from body fluids.
The lining of the digestive tract plays a protective role by safeguarding surrounding tissues against: 1. The corrosive effects of digestive acids and enzymes 2. Mechanical stresses, such as abrasion 3. Bacteria that either are swallowed with food or reside in digestive tract.
Visceral Peritoneum covers organs within the peritoneal cavity
Parietal Peritoneum lines the inner surfaces of the body wall
Mesentery double sheets of peritoneal membrane
Lesser omentum stabilizes the position of the stomach and provides an access route for blood vessels and other structures entering or leaving the liver
Falciform Ligament helps stabilize the position of the liver relative to the diaphragm and abdominal wall
The major layers of the digestive tract: 1. Mucosa 2. Submucosa 3. Muscularis externa 4. Serosa
Mucosa Inner lining of the digestive tract
Enteroendocrine Cells secretes hormones that coordinate the activities of the digestive tract and the accessory glands.
ENS enteral nervous system
enteral nervous system digestive tract nervous network (parasympathetic nervous system)
ENS regulates gut motility and secretion
esophagus hollow tube that extends from the mouth to the stomach
Four functions of the digestive system ingestion, digestion, absorption and elimination.
mastication the process of chewing
deciduous teeth baby teeth
permanent teeth number 32
Three parts of a tooth crown, neck, root
Dentin teeth consist mostly of this bone like material
gingivitis inflammation of the gums
pulp supplies the tooth with sensation and nutrients
stomatitis ulcers of the mouth area
three pairs of salivary glands parotid glands, submandibular glands, sublingual glands
salivary glands secreate saliva
three parts of the pharynx nasopharynx oropharynx, laryngopharynx
epiglottis covers the trachea when swallowing
food tube esophagus
pharyngoesophageal sphincter at the top of the esophagus
gastroesophageal sphincter at the bottom of the esophagus (prevents reflux)
regurgitation reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus
(5) stomach functions secretes gastric juice, secretes gastric hormones and intrinsic factor, regulates rate partially digested food is delivered to the small intestine, digestion of food, absorption of small quantities of water and dissolved substances.
(4) regions of the stomach fundus, body, pylorus, pyloric sphincter
rugae allows the stomach to expand, thick folds in the stomach
chyme thick paste like mixture of food with gastric juices in stomach
glands of stomach contain (3)secretory cells mucus cells, chief cells, parietal cells
mucus cells secrete mucus
chief cells secrete digestive enzymes
parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid (HCL)
vomiting or emesis is caused from emetic reflex controlled by the medulla oblongata
what does "don't rush to flush" mean? valuable information can be obtained through observation of emesis (vomit)
ulcer lesion (some caused by H pylori
hiatal hernia when the stomach protrudes (herniates) from the abdominal cavity into the thoracic cavity.
pyloric stenosis pyloris is too narrow and slows the movement of food out of the stomach.
small intestine length about 20 feet
What does Dow Jones Industrial have to do with the small intestine Duodenum, Jejuum, Ileum
duodenum first part of the small intestines, most digestion and absorption occur here
jejunum second segment of the small intestine
ileum third segment of the small intestine, contains Peyer's patches
large intestine also called colon
parts of the colon cecum, (appendix), ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon
Behind the sigmoid rectum, anal canal, and anus
anus is composed of 2 muscles (involuntary) internal sphincter, and voluntary external sphincter
feces waste composed of nondigestible food residue and forms stool
defecation expulsion of feces
(4) functions of the large intestine absorption of water and certain electrolytes, synthesis of certain vitamins (K and B), Temporary storage of feces (waste), elimination of waste from the body (defecation)
fast movement through large intestine causes diarrhea
slow movement through the large intestine causes constipaiton
Hirschsprung's disease congenital disorder with a lack of the enteral nerve network in the distal colon. No urge to defecate. (also called megacolon)
how much bacteria is in feces about 30% of feces is bacterial content
normal flora bacteria normally in the intestinal tract
borborygmus "to rumble", stomach growls
flatus expelled gas
500 ml/day amount of gas the average person expells a day.
volvulus bowel becomes twisted on itself
proctologist physician for the rectal area
function of the liver(6) synthesis of plasma proteins, bile salts and release of bile.storage of many substances (glycogen, fat-soluble vitamins A,D,E,K, and vitamin b12), detoxification, excretion, metabolism of carbs, protein, fats, and Phagocytosis
Created by: cbiondillo