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Ortho Med Surg

How many bones are in the human body? 206
What are the classifications of the bones? Short Bones; Long bones; flat bones; and irregular bones.
what are the types of bone cells? Osteoblasts (give "birth" to bone), Osteoclasts ("chew" or break it up), and Periosteum (outside tough membrane).
Where are all blood cells created? Bone Marrow
Where do you find Red Marrow? Ileum, Vertebrae, Ribs.
Where do you find Yellow Marrow? Long Bones.
What are the different Muscles? Skeletal, Smooth, and Cardiac.
What are Joints? The Junction between two or more bones, Free-moving or Synovial (diarthrodial) Joints.
What are tendons? Cord-like structures that attach muscle to bone. (muscle to bone)
What are the purpose of tendons? Attachments of the muscle, and origin and insertion.
What are ligaments? Fibrous Tissue connecting two adjacent, freely movable bones such as the ACL. (bone to bone)
What is cartilage? Firm dense type of connective tissue.
What are the different types of cartilage? Hyaline or articular; costal (rib); semilunar (Knee); fibrous (intervertebral); elastic (ear, larynx).
What is the Bursae? Small sac filled with synovial fluid.
What is the purpose of the Bursae? Reduces friction between areas. (Unless you're married to Patty Baldwin) ;)
Assessment/ Physical Examination r/t musculoskeletal system… Motor skills; muscle strength or wasting; symmetry; size; ROM; alignment; pain; tenderness; swelling; redness; Neurovascular (spasms, tremors)
What do you look for in a spinal inspection? Kyphosis, Lordosis, or Scoliosis.
What is Kyphosis? Forward curve of thoracic spine.
What is Lordosis? Sway back.
What is Scoliosis? Congenital disease. Most often occurs during growth spurt of adolescence. Heavy backpacks used by children and teens, usually idiopathic.
things to look for when trying to detect Scoliosis? Thoracic curve; adaptive curve (lumbar)
Physical examination r/t Scoliosis. Abnormal size or alignment; symmetry; pain or tenderness; swelling or redness; external bleeding; brusing; ROM; Muscle strength and wasting.
Assessment/ Physical Examination r/t Scoliosis for traumatic injury. Vital signs; swelling, external bleeding, or bruising; open wounds, debris, protusion of bone or tissue; Peripheral circulation and sensation (find all pulses); malalignment of the injured limb; injury beyond the original area; pain (type and location).
MRI, CT, and Radiographs are examples of what Diagnostic test? Imaging
Local or general and inspection and repair - surgically are examples of what Diagnostic test? Arthroscopy-OR
Aspirate synovial fluid (local anes) and Analyze synovial fluid are examples of what Diagnostic test? Arthrocentesis
What is required to give a bone scan? Radioactive substance given via IV
What does a bone scan detect? Cancer, Fractures, and Bone Infection. (Also your wallet for immediate extraction!)
Explain Electromyography (EMG) Needle electrodes are inserted into muscle, electricity stimulates muscle (response measured) Some risk for pain (warm compress after exam)
What do the following serum bld tests indicate? Alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, dec Ca, inc phosphorus, inc uric acid, anti-nuclear antigen ANA. Alk phos (bone tumor, healing fracture), acid phos (Paget's disease, met tumor), dec Ca (osteomalacia-bad soft bone, osteoporosis, bone tumors), inc phos (bone tumor, healing fx), ANA(lupus erythematosus-auto immune-body attks bones.
24 hour urine test looks for what? Uric acid (gout), and Calcium loss due to prolonged immobility, and bone mets.
X-ray unique to musculoskeletal. DEXA
What is DEXA? Special xray of hip or wrist.
What does DEXA X-ray do? Eval bone density
DEXA results are what? Reported as a t-score (compares to others of same gender, age, and race)
Nursing management in regards to diagnostic tests. Diagnostic examination protocols; send specimens to laboratory; ensure safe recovery after procedure.
Nursing management in regards to a chronic disorder. General medical history; current symptoms; compile drug and allergy histories.
Nursing management in regards to Invasive Joint Examination. Inspect swelling, bleeding, or drainage; change or reinforce dressings.
Nursing process: The client with a musculoskeletal injury in regards to Assessment. Location of injury, it's nature, and effects on mobility; cirulatory status of the injured area; level of pain; vital signs and signs of shock.
Nursing process: The client with a musculoskeletal injury in regards to Diagnosis, Planning, and interventions. Additional interventions for pain related to tissue injury; risk for imapired tissue perfusion related to inflammation or inactivity, anxiety and it's treatment; potential for altered mobility.
Nursing process: The client with a musculoskeletal injury in regards to Evaluation of expected outcomes. pain relief; Neurvascular status remains intact (ciculation, motion, sensitivity (CMS)); reduced anxiety and a calm demeanor.
What nutritional considerations does calcium present? Protects against bone lose (1000-1500mg per day, dairy, green leafy, broccoli, canned salmon with bones are some examples)
What nutritional considerations does Vitamin D present? Protects against bone lose and fractures; without adequate vitamin D, calcium is excreted; fortified milk & Cereal; Sunshine
What pharmacologic considerations does Oral Calcium present? Preparations cantaining vitamin D are better absorbed; Avoid taking with other oral drugs at the same time; Take with meals.
What are Gerontologic Considerations? Women older than 45 years have a 9% to 10% decrease in cortical bone per decade; height loss with age; Active lifestyle delays decline in muscle strength and bone mass; Osteoporosis among aging women.
What are the types of bone fractures? Spiral (indicative of abuse); Green Stick (Usually children); Comminuted (mulitple fragments. Difficult to repair); Compound (pokes through the skin); and Compression (usually in the spine).
What are the main type of casts? Cylinder cast; Hip Spica Cast (stablizes the hip); and Body Cast (Always has a window for diaphragm breathing).
What is the composition of casts? Plaster or Fiberglass
Information about cast application. Provide alignment and support of the fractured area. Cast material feels warm during application, and support drying cast on pillows.
Concerns/reasons for cast windows. Client reports discomfort; wound requires regular dressing change.
When should you use bivalve casts? With swollen arm or limb; when being weaned from a cast; when sharp radiograph is needed; as a splint.
Information about cast removal Advise that machine will not cut into the skin; Use lotions and warm baths or soaks. And apply nursing management (provide instructions on daily activities).
What does cast care involve? leave uncovered so it can dry (reposition freq for even drying); assess CMS (circ, motion, sensitivity) q1h; elevate higher than heart; apply ice; circle shadow drainage w/time; petal cast edges; replace cast window w/tape, amb ASAP
Cast discharge teaching should include? Elevate 48 hrs, non-wt bearing, Exercise proximal and distal joints (prevents atrophy), Keep cast clean and dry, do not scratch when itches, report foul odor, increased warmth, unrelieved pain, fever, change in CMS.
What do splints do? immobilize and support an injured body part in a functional position
What do braces do? provide support, cntrl movement, prevent additional injury, provide ct and family education
What do you need to assess frequently for, in a client in traction? neurovascular status. Also assess alignment, correct attachment, amt of wt, freely hanging
What do you need to monitor for in a ct in traction? monitor for pressure areas and assess for foot drop
What does pin care involve? protect tips w/cork or other material (teach not to touch pin sites); assess for S&S of infection, bending, shifting (get culture if purulent drng); don gloves to cleanse site w/swab and saline (new swab for each pin, remove crusts, no ointment)
What are assessment findings for a ct w/a fracture reduction? assess for neuro or systemic complications (circulation, motion, and sensitivity)
What are diagnosis, planning, and interventions for ct w/a fracture reduction? comfort measures (ice, elevation); constipation and infection prevention (stool softener, abx); promotion of physical mobility (collaborate w/ physical therapy); self-care measures; reinforce instructions
What would an open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) involve? Buck's extension, nails or an intramedullary rod, internal fixation devices (nails, screws, pins)
What is arthroplasty to correct joint dysfunction? total reconstruction or replacement
What is arthrodesis to correct joint dysfunction? joint fusion for pain relief (done w/kids that have curvy bones. Take a wedge out so bone grows straight)
What is hemiarthroplasty to correct joint dysfunction? replacement of one articular surface
What is total arthroplasty to correct joint dysfunction? total joint replacement
What are possible ortho surgical complications? hemorrhage, subluxation (bones not aligned well), infection, thromboembolism (r/t immobility), avascular necrosis (no circ, bone starts to die), loosening of cemented prosthesis
What are conditions that may lead to an amputation? tumors, infections, trauma, PVD, thermal, deformity
What two methods are used for amputations? open (guillotine, sliced off and open at the end); and closed (flap, flap of skin over the end)
What are late complications in the post-op period for an amputation? chronic osteomyelitis, causalgia, phantom limb, phantom pain
What are immediate complications in the post-op period for an amputation? hematoma, hemorrhage, infection, pain
What does post-op stump care involve (after an amputation)? assess drainage, reinforce. Elevate 1st 24-48 hrs (then flat to prevent flexion contracture); shaping (occurs during healing, w/elastic bandage do a figure 8, not a spiral; rewrap 2-3 times per day; promote neutral or extended position
What can you do with a nursing diagnoses of disuse syndrome? prone position TID if lower extremity. (prevents hip contractures); maintain alignment; assist to stand w/ physical therapy
What can you do with a nursing diagnoses of dysfunctional grieving? active listening, empathetic (be available), discuss challenges, allow time for ct to process info, reinforce progress, foster family involvement, post-op amb ASAP, visit w/ another amputee
how much protein should a pt with an amputation increase intake to? 1.2 g/kg, helps prevent skin breakdown, and promotes healing
What kind of tissue is affected with a strain? muscle
What kind of tissue is affected with a sprain? ligament
What is an avulsion fracture? an area of bone where ligament is attached pulls off
Where would a whiplash injury occur? neck
What areas of ligaments and soft tissue are subject to injury? wrist, elbow, knee, ankle
What are assessment findings for strains, contusions, and sprains? sudden, unusual movement, stretching, twisting
what is the medical/ surgical management of amputation? RICE (rest, ice, compress, elevate); apply heat when swelling no longer is likely to inc (@48 hrs); discourage full use of injrd jnt; NSAIDs; assist if splint or cast applied; support joint (elastic bandage, cast, splint); progressively active exercises
What is the patho and etiology of dislocations? trauma, diseases of the joint, degeneration, chronic pain, restricted movement, compartmental synd, Volkmann's contracture (flexion contracture of wrist and hand)
What are assessment findings for dislocations? popping sound, sudden instability w/pain, altered shape, limited ROM, soft tissue injury. Diagnose with x-ray, arthrography, arthroscopy
What is the nursing management for dislocations? relieve discomfort- ice, meds, immobilize. Regular neuro assessments; suggest preventive strategies for sports and/or work-related activities
What is the medical/ surgical management for dislocations? joint is manipulated back into proper alignment and immobilized. (local anesthetic or IVP muscle relaxer; some dislocations require surgery.
What are assessment findings for tendonitis? S&S pain and inflamm; loss of sensation. Diagnostic findings: X-ray studies; electromyography
What is the patho and etiology of tendonitis? recurrent injuries/ over use. Epicondylitis (tennis elbow); ganglions (wrist cyst); carpal tunnel synd (wrist). Trauma; repeated stress -hobby or occupational
What is the medical/surgical management for tendonitis? applications of cold (ice) and heat; well-planned exercise and rest; anti-inflamm meds; local injection w/corticosteroids; analgesics; NSAIDs; splinting, physical therapy, surgery
What is nursing management for tendonitis? info about med (take NSAIDs w/food); demonstrate prescribed splints: use and care, performance of ROM exercises; teach: rest joint in good alignment, elevate arm on pillow while sleeping, cold for 24-48 hrs, avoid wrking or lifting above shoulder lvl
How can you prevent tendonitis? use proper work and sports equip, exercise to maintain muscle and joint strength (warm up and cool down), if pain or swelling occur… rest joint
What is the medical/ surgical management of a rotator cuff tear? NSAIDs, immobiliztion and rest, corticosteroid injection, progressive exercises and stretching, arthroscopic surgery (6-12 month recovery)
What are symptoms of a rotator cuff tear? pain worse at night; limited mobility
What are causes of a rotator cuff tear? traumatic injury , chronic overuse of the shoulder joint
What is the medical/ surgical management of ligament and miniscal injury to knee? NSAIDs; ice, surgery; immobilization; limited wt bearing; gradual introduction of activity; physical therapy (3-12 months)
What is the patho and etiology of a ligament and meniscal injury in the knee? traumatic injury (standing firmly + blow or twist w/hyperextension); pain; instability; ambulatory difficulty (popping, tearing, click, "give way", locking)
What is the role of the nx r/t a ruptured achilles tendon? instruct on activity restrictions, ambulatory aids, pain management; pre and post-op instructions
How is a ruptured achilles tendon repaired? cast or brace
What are assessment findings for a ruptured achilles tendon? loud pop, severe pain, inability to flex
What is a ruptured achilles tendon secondary to? secondary to trauma
What are assessment findings for fractures? loss of fx, deformity, fase motion, crepitus, edema, spasm, tissue and nerve dmg. Diagnose with radiography, bone scan
What is the patho and etiology of fractures? sudden direct force, bone weakness, bone healing process, complications
What factors are considered for fractures? first aid given, location and severity of the break, age and overall physical condition of the client
What is the treatment for fractures? traction, closed or open reduction, internal or external fixation, cast application
What is the goal for fractures? to reestablish functional continuity of the bone
What are interventions r/t compartment syndrome? cut the cast off, or bivalve; attempt to contact physician; may be done by nx w/out physician order; Faciotomy
What is compartment syndrome? altered perepheral tissue perfusion r/t compartment syndrome aeb pallor, cool skin, dec mobility of phalanges, pain unrelieved by meds, dec distal pulses (could be r/t injury or cast; failure to act could result in permanent disability)
What is nursing management for a fractured femur? prevent complications of immobility, clean pin sites, care of traction, observe for fat embolism
What is the medical/ surgical management of a fractured femur? traction, external fixator; spica cast; intramedullary rod (IM rod)
What are assessment findings for a fractured femur? severe pain, swelling; ecchymosis; open wound or a protrusion of bone. Radiography: type and location of fracture
What is the medical/ surgical management of a fractured hip? hemiarthroplasty - does not replace the acetabulum; total hip arthroplasty
what are assessment findings for a fractured hip? severe pain, shortening and external rotation of the leg; bld loss; extensive bruising; swelling; hematoma. Radiography: exact location of fracture
What is nursing management for a fractured hip? prevent skin brkdwn, infection, constipation, urinary retention, muscle atrophy, and contractures, monitor wound drainage, admin ABX, use of devices: overhead trapeze, abduction pillow; provide comfort, supp, and reassurance
What is client ed for a fractured hip? use of trapeze, avoid adduction, do not flex hip beyond 90 degrees, elevated toilet seat, ambulate w/walker => cane
What diet is related to arch bars? Fractured jaw (oral care)
The intake of what, prevents constipation? high fiber
What corrects negative nitrogen balance, promotes healing, and helps prevent skin breakdown and infections? protein intake
What does maintaining an active lifestyle in older adults delay? delays the decline of muscle strength and bone mass
What should you monitor while on NSAIDs? renal function
How much decrease in cortical bone per decade, in women older than 45? 9-10% per decade
Is it usual to be hospitalized for rheumatic disease? hospitalization is unusual as a primary diagnoses
What do rheumatic diseases affect? affect connective tissue, dec mobility, independent care and living, ADLs
How many types of rheumatic diseases are there? > 100 types
What is the patho and etiology of rheumatoid arthritis? synovial tissue affected, autoimmune/ genetic; can affect many body systems - vascular, lung, cardiac, eyes and mouth; flare and remission
What are diagnostic findings for rheumatoid arthritis? radiography, arthrocentesis (milky, dark yellow); RF/ IgG/ CRP/ ESR
what are S&S of rheumatoid arthritis? subcu nodules, muscle atrophy, flexion contractures, classic deformities
What is the medical/ surgical management for rheumatoid arthritis? decreasing joint inflamm, relieving discomfort (heat/cold, NSAIDs/ biologic modifiers); preventing deformities; restoring function (total joint replacement)
What is the nursing management for rheumatoid arthritis (RA)? client ed: maintain appropriate wt, preserve joint mobility - splints; collaborative w/PT and OT (assistive devices); ADLs; emotional support - depression; alternative pain management methods - TENs
What are the risk factors for degenerative joint disease? age, obesity, congenital, dec bone density
What is the patho and etiolgy of degenerative joint disease? repeated trauma, degenerative joint changes, radiography
What are the assessment findings for degenerative joint disease? stiffness esp in morning(hips, knees, spine, hands);chronic pain (relieved w/rest); painless nodules on interphalangeal joints (heberdens nodes -distal; bouchard nodes -proximal); joint enlrgmnt -> lmtd ROM; crepitus - snap, crackle, pop heard or palpable
Medical/ surgical management of degenerative joint disease? rest, heat, splints, exercise program - amb aids, ROM; TENS unit; drug therapy (Tylenol; viscosupplements- Hyalgen, Synvisc, Supartz; glucosamine + chondroitin); joint replacement
What is the nursing management of degenerative joint disease? client ed: maintain moderate activity and posture; drug therapy (S&S of GI bleeding, Tylenol(APAP) < 2000 mg/ day); dietary changes promoting wt loss; refer to a physical therapist if ambulatory aids are needed
What is the patho and etiology of gout? inherited, painful metabolic disorder, may be secondary to renal disease, antirejection meds, etc; urate accumulates in cartilage -> tophi -> destroy joint (feet, hands, elbows, ankles, knees) renal stones; in men more than women
What are diagnostic findings for gout? clinical signs; hyperuricemia, urine test, arthrocentesis - urate crystals; radiography
What are S&S of gout? sudden severe pain of one joint (for 1-2 weeks); swelling, redness, fever, tophi may be palpated
What is the medical/surgical management of gout tophi? use of uricosuric drugs (eliminate excess), dec ingestion of purine (organ meats, anchovies, sardines; wt control, high flds, no ETOH); NSAIDs; colchicine; phenylbutazone; surgery- remove tophi, joint fusion
What is the nursing management of gout tophi? protect joint from pressure, explain long-term drug and diet therapy
What are the assessment findings with bursitis? painful movement of joint, distinct lump. Diagnose with X-ray study, aspiration of fld
What is the patho and etiology of bursitis? inflammation of bursa, trauma, infection
What is the nursing management of Bursitis? review prescription and exercise regimens (do not limit movement => long term limitation)
What is the medical management of bursitis? rest, salicylates, NSAIDs, corticosteroids-usually intra-articular, mild ROM exercises
What is the patho and etiology of ankylosing spondylitis? progressive immobility and fixation (spondylosis & fusion)
What is ankylosing spondylitis? a chronic connective tissue disorder affecting the spine (familial, possibly autoimmune)
What are S&S of ankylosing spondylitis? low back pain (flattened lumbar curve + permanently flexed neck, hips & spine stiffen); CV (aortic regurgitation, AV node conduction disturbance); Dim lung sounds r/t kyphosis & pulm fibrosis; iritis
What is the nursing management of someone with ankylosing spondylitis? enc performance of ADLs, provide emotional support (dec mobility, pain, body image)
Medical/ surgical management of Ankylosing spondylitis? simple analgesics (indomethacin, phenylbutazone); firm mattress w/o pillow; prescribed exercise program; use of back brace; total hip replacement
What is the patho and etiology of Lupus erythematosus? triggering mechanism: autoimmune, familial, UV light exposure => exacerbates (flares). Destruction of connective tissues: kidney, heart, joints, skin, lymph nodes, GI. More in women than men
What are the assessment findings (S&S) of someone with Lupus Erythematosus? skin butterfly rash (discoid lupus erythematosus- subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus, scarring, alopecia); behavioral disturbances (depression, cognitive, psychosis); fld retention (proteinuria, hematuria); CV and resp sx
What kind of rash is characteristic of Lupus Erythematosus? a butterfly rash
What is the medical management for SLE? goal (produce a remission and prevent or treat acute axacerbations of the disorder. Drug therapy (steroid, antineoplastics). Dialysis: kidney transplantation. Symptomatic treatment (cardiac, GI, and CNS complications)
What are the assessment findings for SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus? presenting symptoms, ANA, renal biopsy, UA
What would you assess for with SLE? hx, dx findings, arthritic sx, skin for changes (sensitivity to sunlight, Raynaud's, rashes), ulcerations (oral, pharynx), pericardial friction rub, lung sounds abnormal
What would support effective coping for SLE: Nl? assist patient to verbalize feelings
What is client ed for SLE? medications, self-care, need for close medical F/U
What are the goals for SLE? minimizing eacerbations, alleviate symptoms
What are expected outcomes for SLE (systemic Lupus erythematosus)? relief of pain and discomfort, adherence to therapy, use of alt methods to reduce pain, physical fx w/in limitations, inc muscle str fx, plan for meeting future self-care needs, self-conf and acceptance, realistic future goals.
How is osteomyelitis diagnosed? Labs: elevated leukocyte count and ESR, bld culture positive, anemia. Radiographic findings: irregular bone decalcification, bone necrosis, elevated periosteum, new bone formation. Bone scans/MRI: definitive diagnoses.
What are the assessment findings for osteomyelitis? acute or chronic infection (fever, chills, pain, red, swollen), inc incidence of fuction r/t weak bone.
What is the patho and etiology of osteomyelitis? caused by microorganisms (staph aureas, inc incidence)
What is the nursing management for osteomyelitis? ensure comfort, emotional support, protect injured area and skin
What is the medical/surgical management of osteomyelitis? immobilization to dec pain, surgical debridement, closed irrigation w/saline, antibiotic-impregnated beads 2-4 wks, bone or muscle flap grafts.
What is the medical and surgical management for lyme's disease? ABX, supportive measures. Prognosis good if treated early.
what are assessment findings for lyme's disease? S & S: Stage 1: red macule or papule w/bull's eye rash, HA, neck stiffness, pain, fever, chills, malaise. Midstage: cardiac and neuro sx. Late stage: arthritis
What is the patho and etiology of lyme's disease? deer ticks transmit bacteria
what is the nursing management for osteoporosis? client teaching, balanced diet and appropriate activity
What is the medical and surgical management for osteoporosis? Calcium, vit D, drug therapy, HRT
What are the assessment findings for osteoporosis? lumbosacral or thoracic back pain, kyphosis, radiography, DEXA, QUS
What is the patho and etiology of osteoporosis? loss of bone mass
What is the medical and surgical management for osteomalacia? adequate nutrition, exposure to sunlight, exercise, braces or surgery.
What is the assessment and diagnostic findings of osteomalacia? bone pain, deformities, waddling gait. Radiography, serum levels.
What is the patho and etiolgy for osteomalacia? insufficient calcium absorption, phosphate deficiency
What is the nursing management for Paget's disease? implement prescribed therapy, client safety, client ed- use of ambulatory aids.
What is the medical and surgical management for Paget's disease? drug therapy, surgery
What is the assessment and diagnostic findings of Paget's disease? bone pain, tenderness, skeletal deformity. Radiography, bone scans.
What is the patho and etiology of Paget's Disease? abnormal bone remodeling
What is the medical and surgical management for structural disorders of the feet? well-fitted shoes, surgery, exercises, pads
What are assessment and diagnostic findings r/t structural disorders of the feet? pain, tenderness, deformity, corns and calluses, radiography.
What is the patho and etiolgy of structural disorders of the feet? heredity, arthritis, improperly fitting shoes, bunions, hammertoes.
What is the medical and surgical managemnt for benign bone tumors? surgery, curettage, bone grafts, splints or casts.
What are assessment and diagnostic findings r/t benign bone tumors? pain, deformity, swelling, dec mobility. Radiography, bone scans, biopsy
What is the patho and etiology of benign bone tumors? overgrown clusters of normal bone cells
What are assessment and diagnostic findings r/t malignant sarcomas? primary tumors and location (knee area-lifts periosteum, mets to lungs). Difficulty moving, abnormal gait. Radiography, MRI, bone scan, biopsy, increased alk phos.
What is the patho and etiology of malignant sarcomas? r/t exposure to radiation, toxic chemicals. Hereditary.
What is the medical management of malignant sarcomas? surgery-often amputation. Radiation, and chemo.
Nutritional considerations r/t malignant sarcomas? include proteins, fiber, omega-3 fatty acids, and flds in diet. Avoid fasting, low-carb diets, and rapid wt loss. Excess fiber and PRO, caffeine, alcohol, and smoking promote Ca excretion. Immobility (inc flds and PRO)
What are signs of salicylism? HA, N, V, inc temp, tinnitus, drowsiness, mental confusion
What should be offered with vit D? oral calcium
Whar are common adverse effects of NSAIDs related to? The GI tract, N, V, D, C, GI bleeding
What is the leading factor in osteoporosis? estrogen deficiency
The loss of height is due to the compression of what? intervertebral disks
older adults are prone to what kind of fractures? skeletal fractures, bone resorption takes place more rapidly than bone formation
Older women have a decrease in what? cortical bone
Created by: pepcpatty