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Bio Final Exam

Intro to Biology Final Exam

Stream orders Headwaters are first order streams; there are 6 stream orders
What are the Biblical principles for Christian Environmental Stewardship? 1)Genesis 2:15 — to serve and to keep it 2)Genesis 6 – The Noah Account 3)Numbers 35:33-34 – Don’t defile the land or pollute it 4)Genesis 1:28 – Be fruitful and multiply
What do the Social Dominant people believe? 1. Resources Unlimited 2. Environmental issues understated 3. Human population growth will improve things 4. Tech. and science is the answer to our problems 5. Strong on property rights
What do the New Environmental people believe? 1. Limited resources 2. Environmental issues are serious 3. The Biblical mandate to fill the earth is filled 4. Tech. and science are part of the solution, but we to change our behavior 5. Less about individual property rights, ^ personal responsibili
Four levels of Biodiversity (both) --Genetic, species, ecosystem, and natural processes --Medicinal, Agricultural, Ecological, Aesthetic, and Recreational
Values of Biodiversity Trees (oxygen), fresh water, nutrients from food, decompose waste, control pollution/flooding, control gases in air, acts as a sponge (wetlands)
Riparian vegetation Stream flow, stream life, tree roots, soils
Effects of urbanization Decreases lag time from time of precipitation event to peak runoff, Increases peak flow substantially, Decreases duration of runoff event, Decreases base flow with increase in likelihood of stream becoming intermittent. Overall, total discharge increases.
Watershed Land area that delivers the water, sediment, and dissolved substances via small streams to a major river.
Intermittent streams In the United States, an intermittent or seasonal stream is one that only flows for part of the year and is marked on topographic maps with a line of blue dashes and dots.
Point and non-point sources of pollution point is a single identifiable source and nonpoint = large or dispersed land areas such as crop field, streets and lawns that discharge pollutants into the environment over a large area.
Fecal coliform a facultatively-anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium.
Cultural eutrophication the over nourishment of aquatic ecosystems with plant nutrients resulting from human activities such as agriculture, urbanization and industrial discharge.
Biological magnification the increase in concentration of certain fat-soluble chemicals such as D. D. T., mercury and lead in successively higher trophic levels of food chain or web.
Lentic is....? Standing
Lotic is....? Moving
Quick flow is the portion of stream flow that comes from either surface runoff or interflow.
Types of wetlands Marshes, Swamps, wooded wetlands, Fens, Bogs
3 characteristics of wetlands 1.Water – a week during the growing season 2.Hydric soils 3.Hydrophytic vegetation
Definition of wetlands Areas of transition between dry upland and open water or low lying areas which collect water drainage or intersect the water table. Wetlands have water, saturated or “hydric” soils, and plants adapted to wet soil conditions (hydrophytic vegetation)
Bog ecology low bacteria levels, acidic, primary productivity (low), slow decomposition rate
Dangers of a bog Poison Sumac and False bottom
Value of wetlands Yield fish and wildlife, Hunting and fishing, Birding, hiking, and photography, Deer yard in cedar swamps, Home to many insects – “The Nature Supermarket”, Cedar wood for fences, Spruce and Fir for paper
Value of wetlands, p. 2 Cranberries, peat moss, and wild rice, Flood water retention area, Buffer the shore against damaging storms, Wetlands filter and purify the water.
Destruction of wetlands 80% of this loss is due to draining/clearing inland wetland for agriculture. The other 20% garbage dumps, waste water sites, and development.
Principles of Integration 1)Evolution and Creation 2)The “Master” Designer (Intelligent Design) 3)Environmental Stewardship 4)Moral Issues 5)Facilitates Spiritual Growth
Good Science vs. Junk Science 1)What is the underlying reason for making the argument? 2)Is the argument rooted in data that has passed the peer-review process?
Good Science vs. Junk Science, p. 2 3)Does the argument advocate not paying serious attention to a problem? 4)What credentials does the person have on ecological issues? 5)How old is the research?
Predators and Wilderness predators eliminate the old, sick and weak, and they control the prey population. Wilderness is important for certain species of flora and fauna.
Icons of Evolution, 1 and 2 1) Darwin’s Finches—Cyclic variation (back to its normal self) 2) Tree of Life—homology (similarity in structure of different organisms w/ common ancestry), but similarities don’t ensure a connection
Icons of Evolution, 3 and 4 3) The Fossil Record—Cambrian Explosion disproves the theory of macro evol. 4) Haeckel’s Vertebrate Embryo—faked drawings and earlier stages are very different
Intelligent Design video notes Watchmaker argument, Mutualism animals that need each other, young earth
Life strategies of spring plants Grow rapidly, full bloom and maximum leaf expansion before the leaves come out on the trees, and by early june complete their life and vanish into the ground as bulbs.
5 feeding designs of snakes 1) Detect vibrations, 2) Forked tongue, 3) Very quick, 4) Powerful digestive enzymes, 5) No sternum
Explain three major Ecological roles of Fire Decomposers, promotes diversity of ecosystems, certain species are dependent on fire (jack pine for cones to open up)
Explain the value of dead trees Home to certain species, nutrient filled, serves as a nursery for tree seedlings.
Earthworms enrich the soil by bringing subsoil to the surface, ingest its own weight in soil every 24 hours, estimated 10 to 18 tons of dry earth per acre pass through their intestines annually, add nitrogen from their castings, makes the soil more porous.
Ecological functions of Fungi decomposers, mycorrhizae fungi, food source
Sand Dune ecology – formation of Parabolic Dunes The wind moves sand through an eroded corridor such as a path, the wind pushes sand up the slope and out creating the saddle shaped dune and this process takes many years.
Explain what factors are involved in why trees grow where they grow in MI. Soils and temperatures. Sandy soils, holds less moisture, few nutrients, cooler temperatures, conifers do well.
According to Dr. Keys, explain 3 arguments why Global Climate change is a Right to Life issue in Third World Countries? Agricultural Problems, water and drought issues, disease, refugees
5 factors for bird's flight Feathers, hollow bones, remarkable respiratory system, large strong (?digestive structures), reduction of organs
Wuchereria round worm-nematode, elephantiasis, blocks the lymphatic vessels, symptoms are swelling, vector is mosquitoes, habitat is lymphatic system.
Cryptosporidium (protozoa) symptoms are nausea, cramping, diarrhea, vector is eating, drinking, sexual intercourse, and/or arthropods, habitat is wetlands, lakes, rivers, and oceans.
Guinea worms round worm, Cyclops is intermediate host, Dracunculiasis is the scientific name, phyla is Nematoda, you can contract it by drinking unfiltered water, and it lives in the intestine.
Plasmodium malaria, vector is mosquitoes, symptom is weakness, Haemosporida is the phyla name, you get it from mosquitoes through the blood stream.
Which Phyla that has no Terrestrial forms? Porifera
Major insect body parts Head, thorax, abdomen
The Phyla with the greatest number of animal species Arthropoda
Created by: dramaqueen1717