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Daniel's cards 2

QuestionAnswer
RHeumatic Fever Fever Eryhtema marginatum Valvular disease ESR increased Red hot joints 9migratorary polyarthritis St. Vitus dance (chorea) Subcutnaoues nodules
pulsus paradoxus asthma, OSA, cardiact tamoponade, pericarditis, croup
RNA polymerase 1 synthesizes rRNA in nucleolus
RNA polymerase 2 synthesizes mRNA - inhibited by alpha amanitin from death cap mushroom -> liver failure
RNA polymerase 3 synthesize small RNA -> tRNA, 55 rRNA, snRNP
3 D's of botulinism dysphonia, dysphagia, diplopia
leading cause of bowel obstruction femoral hernia
glucocorticoids effect on porteolytic - muscle wasting - increased BUN 2. inhibit fibroblast and collage -> skin thinning wounds easy bruising
glucocorticoids immunosuppressive -> inhibit phospholipase A2 -> decreased CT and PG
decreased bone mass -> decreased Ca,, inhibit osteoblast increased calcium excretion glucocortoid effect
gluoconeogenesis and glycogenesis -> increased protein synthesisi -> insulin antagonist hyperglycemia effect of glucocorticoids
what does the macula densa sense? decreased Na delivery
where is the macula dense distal tubule
what does the JG cells sense? decreased BP
where are the JG cells smooth muscle of afferent arteriole
low Cl- metabolic alkalosis hypokalemia hypovolemia increased aldosterone
high cl secondary to non-anion gap acidosis
high K+ peaked T waves, arryhtmias, wide QRS
low k+ flattened T waves, u wave, aryhtmias, paralysis
peptic ulcer tx PPI, clarithromycin, amoxicillin (metronidazole if allergic to penicillin)
gardner's syndrome FAP osteomas desmoid tumors soft tissue tumors retinal hyperplasia
turcot's syndrome FAP + CNS tumors
which type of Crigler najjar is less severe? type 2 tx: phenobarbital - increaes liver enzyme synthesis
hypervariable pili Neisseria
pvR Pvr = ppulmartery-platrium / CO
IgG binding outer membrane protein S. aureus protein A
plasma volume meausred by? albumin
how do herpesviruses get their lipid bilayer envelop? bud through and acquire it from host cell NUCLEAR membrane. (everyone else gets from plasma membrane)
extracellular V measured by? inulin
tx of acute C. diphtheriae diphtheria antitoxin (passive immunization) 2. penicillin or erythromycine 3. DPT vaccine (active immunization)
granulomatous inflammation of the media giant cell arteritis (temporal or Takayasu)
Gardose channel blocker prevent dehydration of RBCs by hindering efflux of K+ and water - thus decreased sickling in SC patients
mycobacterial cell wall composed of? mycolic acid inhibited by INH
glucose clearance threshold 160-200 mg/dL glucosuria begins
glucose Tm 350 tranporters fully resaturated
live attenuated vaccines Life! come watch small yellow chickens get baccinated with Sabins and MMR small box yellow fever chicken pox MMR Sabins
filtered load GFR x Px
bronchopnuemonia organisms S. aureus, H flu, klebsiella, s pyogenes 1. acute inflammatory infiltrates from bonchioles into adjacent alvoeli patchy > 1 lobes
light microscopy in shingles lesion intranuclear inclusions in keratinocytes and multinucleated giant cells
gram positive spore forming anaerobic rods clostridia
renal tubular acidosis (RTA) type 4 hyperkalemic hypoaldosteronism or lack of collecting tubule response to aldosterone hyperkalemia and inhibition of NH4+ excretion in proximal tubule decreased urine pH due to decreased buffering capacity
heme -> biliverdin (greenish) heme oxygenase
how much increase in Pco2 for every increased 1 mEq/l HCO3? 0.7
what kind of protein is the CFTR protein channel? transmembraneATP gated Cl channel
most common malignancy in asbestos exposure bronchogenic carcinoma (then mesothelioma)
mesolimbic mesocortical system regulates behavior schizophrenia
How does a PE effect Abg? PE -> acute V/Q mismatch -> hypoxemia -> hyperventilation -> respiratory alkalosis thus increased pH, decreased pAO2, decreased PaCO2, no change or decreased HCO3?
physiologic dead sapce Vd = taco paco peco paco
acute urethritis chlamydia and neisseria gonorrhea azithromycine, cetriaxone
actinic keratosis precursor to SCC basal cell atypia increased risk sun exposure erythmatous papules with central scale sandpaper like texture cutaneous horn
reduced cholesterol stone formation in gallbladder increased bile aid and increased phospholipid decreased cholesterol
V/Q -> O shunt does not improve with 100% O2
histone acetylation leads to? euchromatin loosely arranged transcriptionally active
torsades de pointes V tach (shifting sinusoidal waveforms on ECG) can progress to V-fib
Jarvell and Lange nielsen syndrome congenital long QT syndrome (na or K channel deffective) severe congenital sensorineural deafness
myoglobin has only 1 heme -> high O2 affinity high affinity -> left shift P50 = 1mmHg P50 for hemoglobin = 26
product of which TCA step is used as a phosphate source for phosphoenolpyruvate in gluconeogenesis? succinyl coA --- > succinate produces a GTP
recombinant vaccines HBv (HB2Ag) HPV (6,11,16,18)
diffusion equation A/T * Dk (P1-P2)
diffusion effect of emphysema decreased area
diffusion effect of fibrosis increased thickness
lung compliance change in volume for a given change in pressure decreased in pul fibrosis, decreased surfactant, decreased pulm edema
intracellular polyphosphate granules C diphtheriae stain to see with methylene blue
pralidoxime used with atropine for ACHE inhibitor poisoning restores ACHE from its bond to inhibitor (usually organophosphate)
long acting benzos less addictive more severe daytime drowsiness flurazepam, diazepam, clorazepate chlordiazepoxide
RPF RPF = RBF (1-Hc)
Winter's formula PaCO2 = 1.5*HCo3- + 8 note: during metabolic acidosis, when PaCO2 is above the range, there is superimposed respiratory acidosis and failure
hepatic granulomatosis methyldopa hydralazine quinidine
reye syndrome microvesicular fatty change
MS incontinence, intention tremor, internuclear opthalmoplegia scanning speech nystagmus optic neuritis sensory deficits worse in heat
exemestene aromatase inhibitor anastrozole
massive hepatic necrosis centrilobular hepatic necrosis halothane metabolite and formed autoantibodies cause damage halothane SE
auspitz sign psoriasis bleeding where scales on skin lesions taken off
pineal germinoma precocious puberty - via beta hCG obstructive hydrocephalus - aqueduct compression parinaud syndrome - paralysis upward gaze and convergence compression of tectal area of midbrain
macular degeneration dry - slow progression, fat and pigment deposition
fast progression of macular degeneration wet neovascularization VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) tx: anti VEGF - ranibuzumab and pegaptanib
sweat gland apocrine secrete into hair follicles initially odorless, malodoroous post bacterial decomposiion on skin surfaces breast areaoli, axilla, genitals
sweat eccrine moist skin NaCL sweat to skin
sweat holocrine sebaceous gland
cholestyramine bile acid binding resin liver uses cholesterol to make more, thus decreased LDL liver also makes more VLDL INCREASED trigylcerides cholesterol gallstones GI upset, malabsorption
number needed to treat NNT = 1/ARR ARR = a/a+b - c/c+d
pentazocine partial agonist and weak antagonist at mu receptor withdrawal symptoms in patients tolerant to opiods that are selective mu agonists
actinic keratosis small rough erythematous or brownish papules sun exposure basal cell atypia hyperkeratosis (hyperplasia of s. corneum) parakeratosis (abnormal nuclei in s. corneum)
CMv herpesviridae 5 yes envelope DS linear AIDS retinitis congenital defects (sightomegavirus)
papillary thyroid carcinoma braching papillae with fibrovascular stalk lined by cuboidal cells ground glass appearing nuclei psamomma bodies (calcium)
traveler's diarrhea ETEC heat labile enterotoxin - increased cAMP heat stabile enterotoxin - increased cGMP cholera like toxin
acute pericarditis fibrinous uremia, radiation, dressler's
serous pericarditis autimmune - i.e. SLE; inflammatory disease
injection of buttock damage the gluteal nerves superior medial
sciatic nerve in butt inferomedial part
rheumatic heart disease lead to waht in younger patients? MR
rheumatic fever in older patient MS
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy friedriech's ataxia AD
dilated cardiomyopathy Alcohol wet beriberi chagas cocaine coxsackie B virus doxorubicin hemochromatosis peripartum cardiomyopathy
restrictive CMP sarcoidosis amyloidosis postradiation fibrosis endocardial fibroelastosis (young children) loffler's syndrome (fibrosis with eosinophils) hemochromatosis
how does panic attack effect AbG and cerebral blood flow? hyperventilation -> decreased CO2 -> cerebral vasoconstriction -> decreased cerebral blood flow
aschoff bodies granuloma with giant cells rheumatic fever
anitshkow's cells activated histiocytes in rheumatic fever
Created by: ilovemusic007