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Metabolic cond.

The Child with a Metabolic condition

2 Major control systems that monitor the functions of the body Nervous system and the Endocrine system
Chemical substances produced by the glands Hormones
An organ specifically influenced by a certain hormone Target organ
Most of the glands and structures of the endocrine system develop during The 1st trimester of fetal development
Hormonal control is immature until At least 18 months of age
What may occur as a result of an absent, nonfunctioning thyroid gland Congenital hypothyroidism
Early signs of an inborn error of metabolism in the newborn Lethargy, poor feeding, failure to thrive, vomiting, and an enlarged liver
Signs of metabolic dysfunction Unexplained mental retardation, developmental delay, convulsions, odor to the body or urine, vomiting
Important screening device for identifying an enzyme deficiency PKU testing
An enzyme necessary for the metabolism of fats Hexosaminidase
Involves a deficiency of hexosaminidase Tay-Sachs disease
The infant with Tay-Sachs disease is normal until 5 to 6 months
TRUE or FALSE. Most children with Tay-Sachs disease die before 5 years of age from secondary infection or malnutrition TRUE
Treatment for Tay-sach's disease There is NO treatment
Occurs when there is a deficiency in the secretions of the thyroid Hypothyroidism (congenital or acquired)
Acquired by the older child, may be caused by lymphocytic thyroiditis Juvenile hypothyroidism
Manifestations of hypothyroidism in infants Sluggish, enlarged tongue, dry skin, no perspiration, cold hands and feet
Treatments of hypothyroidism Synthetic hormone sodium levothyroxine
Can be hereditary or acquired as the result of a head injury or tumor Diabetes insipidus
Signs of Diabetes insipidus Polydipsia and polyuria
Treatment of Diabets insipidus Involves hormone replacement of vasopressin in the form of desmopressin by subcantaneous injection or DDAVP nasal spray
A chronic metabolic syndrome in which the body is unable to use carbohydrates properly, leading to an impairment of glucose transport Diabetes mellitus (DM)
Incomplete fat metabolism produces ketone bodies that accumulate in the blood Ketonemia
An autoimmune condition that occurs when a child with a genetic predisposition is exposed to an environmental factor such as viral infection that trigger the syndrome Type 1 DM
Involves a resistance to insulin; often aggravated by a sedentary lifestyle and obesity Type 2 DM
Manifestations of Type 1 DM Polydipsia (excessive thirst), Polyuria (urine frequently), polyphagia (constantly hungry), lethargy, weakness, weight loss, hyperglycemia
Diagnostic Blood tests for Type 1 DM Blood glucose, fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance test, glycosylated hemoglobin test
May be obtained at any time and requires no preparation of the patient Blood glucose
A standard and reliable test for diabetes; measured in the fasting patient Fasting blood glucose
Used to determine the amount of glucose in the blood; results are plotted on a graph Glucose Tolerance test
Reflects glycemic levels over a period of months; Values are found to be elevated in virtually all children with newly diagnoses diabetes Glycosylated hemoglobin test
Referred to as diabetic coma Ketoacidosis
Symptoms of ketoacidosis Fruity odor to the breath, nausea, decreased level of consciousness, and dehydration
3 goals of treatment in Type 1 DM 1. Ensure normal growth and development through metabolic control 2. Enable the child to cope with a chronic illness 3. Prevent complications
Provides readouts and automatically store data by time and date Glucometer systems
Refers to changes that can occcur in the subcutaneous tissue at the injection site Lipoatrophy
Types of insulin Short-acting; Rapid-acting; Intermediate-Acting; Long-acting
Short-Acting Insulin Humulin R- onset 30-60 min; Peak 2-5 hrs; Duration 5 to 8 hrs
Rebound hyperglycemia; occurs when blood glucose levels are lowered to a point at which the body's counterregulatory hormones (epinephrine, cortisol, glucagon) are released Somogyi phenomenon
Recommended for the treatment of severe hypoglycemia Glucagon
When early morning elevations of blood glucose occur without preceding hypoglycemia and may be a response to growth hormone secretion that occurs in the early morning hours Dawn phenomenon
Created by: vandas