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Cardiovas. Disorder

The Child with a Cardiovascular Disorder

QuestionAnswer
When does the cardiovascular system develop? Between the 3rd and 8th week of gestation
Signs related to suspected cardiac pathology to report Failure to thrive, Cyanosis, pallor, tachypnea, dyspnea, irregular pulse rate, clubbing of fingers, fatigue during feeding or activity, excessive perspiration, visual pulsations in the neck veins
Causes of Congenital heart defects Genetic or maternal factors, or environmental factors (drugs,rubella)
TRUE or FALSE. Congenital heart defects are NOT a problem for the fetus because the fetal-maternal circulation compensates for all fetal oxygen needs TRUE
Of the congenital anomalies, what is the principal cause of death during the first year of life Heart defects
How is congenital heart disease treated? Surgery. Thoracotomy (chest incision)
Reduces the temperature of body tissues, resulting in a decreased need for oxygen Hypothermia
2 categories of Congenital heart defects Cyanotic and acyanotic
The study of blood circulation hemodynamics
Refers to the flow of blood through an abnormal opening between 2 vessels of the heart Shunt
Congenital heart defects that cause the blood to return to the right ventricle and recirculate through the lungs before exiting the left ventricle throught the aorta are known as Defects that increase pulmonary blood flow
TRUE or FALSE. In congenital heart disease, cyanosis is NOT ALWAYS a clinical sign TRUE
Involves an abnormal opening between the right and left atria Atrial Septal Defect
TRUE or FALSE. Most patients have symptoms of atrial septal defect FALSE
Diagnostic tests used to confirm atrial septal disease Cardiac catherization, electrocardiogram, and echocardiography
What is usually prescribed for 6 months after repair in atrial septal defect? Low-dose aspirin therapy
Most common heart anomaly Ventricular septal defect
Characteristic of Ventricular septal defect Loud, harsh murmur combined with a systolic thrill
Treatment for Ventricular septal defect Open heart surgery
The passageway through which the blood crosses from the pulmonary artery to the aorta and avoids the deflated lungs Ductus arteriosus
The ductus arteriosus closes shortly after birth, what happens whe it does NOT close? Blood continues to pass from the aorta, where the pressure is higher, into the pulmonary artery
Symptoms of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) May go unnoticed during infancy
PDA occurs twice as frequently in ____ as is in ____ Girls; Boys
Means "a tightening" Coarctation
Characteristic symptoms of coarctation of the aorta are A marked difference in the blood pressure and pulses of the upper and lower extremities
If coarctation of the aorta is untreated what can develop? Hypertension, CHF, and infective endocarditis
Treatment for Coarctation of the aorta for older children Percutaneous balloon angioplasty and stents can be inserted to maintain patency.
What occurs when a congenital heart anomaly allows blood that has not passed through the lungs to enter the aorta and the general circulation A decrease in pulmonary blood flow
What is cyanosis caused by the presence of unoxygenated blood in the circulation is a characteristic of what? Congenital heart anomaly
Tetra means Four
4 defects of Tetralogy of Fallot 1. Stenosis or narrowing of the pulmonary artery 2. Hypertrophy of the right ventricle 3. Dextroposition of the aorta 4. VSD
Symptoms of Tetralogy of Fallot Cyanosis, clubbing of the fingers and toes, feeding problems, growth retardation
What position would a child rests to breathe more easily in Tetralogy of Fallot Squatting
Paroxysmal hypercyanotic episodes are also known as "Tet" spells
Diagnosis of tetralogy of Fallot Chest x-ray, electrocardiogram, 3-dimensional echocardiography, and cardiac catheterization
Thickened blood as a result of increased RBCs Polycythermia
Surgical procedure for newborns or premature infants in Tetralogy of Fallot Blalock-Taussig
After catherization for congenital heart defects, what does nursing care involves Monitoring vital signs, observing for thrombosis formation, and performing neurovascular checks
TRUE or FALSE. Immunizations after cardiac transplantation should be continued FALSE. Immunizations must be placed on hold
Why is dental care in children with heart disease important? To prevent bacteremia, which can cause bacterial endocarditis
Aimed at preventing anemia and promoting optimal growth and development Nutritional guidance
Which side of the heart moves unoxygenated blood to the pulmonary circulation in congestive heart failure Right
Which side of the heart moves oxygenated blood from the pulmonary circulation to the systemic circulation in congestive heart failure Left
Early signs of CHF Tachycardia at rest, fatigure during feeding, sweating around scalp and forehead, dyspnea, weight gain
The amount of blood ejected during one contraction Stroke volume
Treatment for Congestive heart failure (CHF) Reduce the work of the heart, improve respiration, maintain proper nutrition, prevent infection, reduce anxiety, support and instuct parents
TRUE or FALSE. A complete bath and linen change for an infant with a serious heart defect may NOT be a priority. TRUE
Systemic disease involving the joints, hearts, central nervous, skin, and subcutaneous tissus. Rheumatic fever
Group of disorders Rheumatic fever belongs to Collagen diseases
Symptoms of Rheumatic fever Migatory polyarthritis (wandering joint pains), skin eruptions, chorea, and inflammation of the heart; fever, fatigue, anorexia, nosebleeds
Myocardial lesions Aschoff's bodies
Diagnosis of rheumatic fever X-rays, throat cultue, pulmonary function tests, electrocardiogram
Treatment of rheumatic fever Penicillin, antibacterial therapy, physical and mental rest, management of cardiac failure
Prevention of Rheumatic fever Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal
TRUE or FALSE. Congenital heart defects that result in a recirculation of blood to the lungs do not usually produce cyanosis as a clinical sign TRUE
The major Jones criteria diagnostic of rheumatic fever include Polyarthritis, erythema marginatum, Sydenham's chorea, and rheumatic carditis
TRUE or FALSE. A child under age 2 years should have a fat-restricted diet. FALSE
Created by: vandas