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Nutrition - E5

Nutrition - Exam 5 - Chapters 10 & 11

Rate and extent to which a nutrient is absorbed and used. Bioavailability
Water-Soluble Vitamins are hydro______. phillic
Fat-Soluble Vitamins are hydro______. phobic
______ is part of coenzyme TPP used in energy metabolism. thiamin
______ participates in the conversion of pyruvate to Acetyl CoA. thiamin
______ is also known as B1 thiamin
Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome is a severe ______ deficiency in alcohol abusers. thiamin
What vitamin deficiencies are related to alcohol abuse? thiamin, B6, folate
Where are most fat soluble vitamins stored? liver
What 3 vitamins are antioxidants? C, beta-carotine, E
Vitamin ____ is important in blood clotting. K
50% of the ______ that you need is made in the intestine. vitamin K
______ is a thiamin deficiency disease that can be wet (with edema) or dry (with muscle wasting) beriberi
What is the most significant food source of thiamin? pork
What are the best cooking methods for food sources of thiamin? steam, microwave
______ is part of coenzymes FMN (flavin mononucleotide) and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) used in energy metabolism. riboflavin
______ carries hydrogens to the ETC. riboflavin
_______ is a riboflavin deficiency disease whose symptoms consist of Inflamed eyelids and sensitivity to light, reddening of cornea. ariboflavinosis
What are the best food sources of riboflavin? milk products, liver
______ is easily destroyed by ultraviolet light and irradiation but is stable to heat, and is not destroyed by cooking riboflavin
Dietary tryptophan is the precursor to what vitamin? niacin
______ is a niacin deficiency disease whose symptoms consist of dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, death pellagra
Painful flush, hives, and rash as a result of niacin toxicity is known as _______. niacin flush
A protein found in what food inhibits absorption of Biotin? raw egg whites
Vitamin synthesized by intestinal bacteria? biotin
Vitamin that is part of coenzyme A? Pantothenic Acid
Vitamin thought to combat PMS? B6
Vitamin that reduces the risk of neural tube defects? folate
Most common neural tube defect? spina bifida
Function shared by B12 and Folate? cell synthesis
Vitamin that is bound to glutamic acid molecules in food? folate
______ folate is 1.7 times more available than ______. synthetic, natural
The deficiency symptoms of _______ include: Anemia (large-cell type), Megaloblastic anemia; Smooth, red tongue; Mental confusion, weakness, fatigue, irritability, headache folate
In order for absorption to occur ______ must bind with Intrinsic Factor in the small intestine. vitamin b12
Inflammation of the stomach, common in older people. Production of HCL and intrinsic factor diminsh, thus decreasing the ability to absorb B12. Atrophic Gastritis
Deficiency symptoms of ______ include: Anemia (large-cell type); Fatigue, degeneration of peripheral nerves progressing to paralysis vitamin b12
Groups at risk for B12 deficiency? elderly, vegetarians
B12 deficiency caused by atrophic gastritis and lack of intrinsic factor is ______. pernicious anemia
Collagen synthesis, Antioxidant Thyroxin synthesis, Amino acid metabolism, Strengthens resistance to infection, Absorption of iron Vitamin C
Deficiency symptoms include Anemia (small-cell type) Atherosclerotic plaques Pinpoint hemorrhages, bone fragility, joint pain Poor wound healing, frequent infections, bleeding gums, loosened teeth Vitamin C
Foods rich in Vitamin C? Citrus fruits, Cabbage-type vegetables, dark green vegetables
ascorbic acid is also known as ______ vitamin c
Vitamin A source derived from animals? retinoids
Vitamin A source derived from plants? carotenoids
______ is a precursor to vitamin A. beta-carotene
What retinoid helps maintain the cornea? retinal
What retinoid helps with epithelial tissue? retinoic acid
Special transport protein that picks up Vitamin A from the liver where it is stored and carries it to the bloodstream. Retinol-binding protein
Vitamin A deficiency disease is ______. hypovitaminosis A
______ deficiency symptoms include: Night blindness, corneal drying (xerosis), Bitot’s spots Vitamin A
Vitamin A definciency that consists of the plugging of hair follicles with keratin, forming white lumps hyperkaratosis, keratinization
______, a drug for acne treatment, is made from Vitamin A but it is chemically different Accutane
______, a drug for acne treatment, is highly toxic especially for pregnant women Accutane
Food sources of Vitamin A? liver, orange vegetables
The precursor of Vitamin D is the body’s own ______. Cholesterol
Organs that help synthesize Vitamin D? skin
Vitamin D deficiency diseases include, ______, in children and ______, in adults rickets, osteomalacia
Food sources of Vitamin D? Fortified milk, margarine, butter, cereals, and chocolate mixes Veal, beef, egg yolks, liver, fatty fish (herring, salmon, sardines) and their oils
______ stop the chain reactions of free radicals from producing other free radicals. antioxidants
______ are molecules with one or more unpaired electrons, highly unstable, highly reactive. free radicals
______ can donate electrons to neutralize free radicals and prevent them from damaging tissues. antioxidants
______ protects PUFA and Vitamin A from oxidation vitamin E
______ protects LDL from oxidation and so reduces the risk of heart disease. vitamin E
______ deficiency from inadequate dietary intake is rare. Deficiency is usually associated with disease of fat malabsorption. vitamin E
______ deficiency causes red blood cells to break open and spill their contents (Erthrocyte Hemolysis which can lead to hemolytic anemia) vitamin E
Food sources of vitamin E? Polyunsaturated plant oils (margarine, salad dressings, shortenings) Leafy green vegetables, wheat germ, whole grains, liver, egg yolks, nuts, seeds
Vitamin K activates ______ which is a precursor of thrombin. prothrombin
Vitamins that are synthesized in the body? D, K
Vitamin injected at birth in newborns? K
Food sources of Vitamin K? Liver Leafy green vegetables, cabbage-type vegetables Milk
Created by: K1N1V