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Opoids

OneLiners

QuestionAnswer
Inhibit synaptic activity of primary afferents and spinal cord pain transmission neurons Ascending pathways
Activation of these receptors close Ca2+ ion channels to inhibit neurotransmitter release Presynaptic mu, delta, and kappa receptors
Activation of these receptors open K+ ion channels to cause membrane hyperpolarization Postsynaptic Mu receptors
Tolerance to all effects of opioid agonists can develop except Miosis and constipation
All opioids except this agent (which has a muscarinic blocking action) cause pupillary constriction Meperidine
SE of these drugs include dependence, withdrawal syndrome, sedation, euphoria, respiratory depression nausea and vomiting, constipation, biliary spasm, increased ureteral and bladder tone, and reduction in uterine tone Opioid Analgesics
Strong opioid agonists Morphine, methadone, meperidine, and fentanyl
Opioids used in anesthesia Morphine and fentanyl
Opioid used in the management of withdrawal states Methadone
Opioid available trans-dermally Fentanyl
Opioid that can be given PO, by epidural, and IV, which helps to relieve the dyspnea of pulmonary edema Morphine
Use of this opioid with MAOI can lead to hyperpyrexic coma, and with SSRI's can lead to serotonin syndrome Meperidine
Moderate opioid agonists Codeine, hydrocodone, and oxycodone
Weak opioid agonist, poor analgesic, its overdose can cause severe toxicity including respiratory depression, circulatory collapse, pulmonary edema, and seizures Propoxyphene
Partial opioid agonist, considered a strong analgesic, has a long duration of action and is resistant to naloxone reversal Buprenorphine
Opioid antagonist that is given IV and had short DOA Naloxone
Opioid antagonist that is given orally in alcohol dependency programs Naltrexone
These agents are used as antitussive Dextromethorphan, Codeine
These agents are used as antidiarrheal Diphenoxylate, Loperamide
Inhalant anesthetics NO, chloroform, and diethyl ether
Toxic to the liver, kidney, lungs, bone marrow, peripheral nerves, and cause brain damage in animals, sudden death has occurred following inhalation Fluorocarbons and Industrial solvents
Cause dizziness, tachycardia, hypotension, and flushing Organic nitrites
Causes acne, premature closure of epiphyses, masculinization in females, hepatic dysfunction, MI, and increases in libido and aggression Steroids
Readily detected markers that may assist in diagnosis of the cause of a drug overdose include Changes in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, body temperature, sweating, bowel signs, and pupillary responses
Most commonly abused in health care professionals Heroin, morphine, oxycodone, meperidine and fentanyl
This route is associated with rapid tolerance and psychologic dependence IV administration
Leads to respiratory depression progressing to coma and death Overdose of opioids
Lacrimation, rhinorrhea, yawning, sweating, weakness, gooseflesh, nausea, and vomiting, tremor, muscle jerks, and hyperpnea are signs of this syndrome Abstinence syndrome
Treatment for opioid addiction Methadone, followed by slow dose reduction
This agent may cause more severe, rapid and intense symptoms to a recovering addict Naloxone
Sedative-Hypnotics action Reduce inhibition, suppress anxiety, and produce relaxation
Additive effects when Sedative-Hypnotics used in combination with these agents CNS depressants
Common mechanism by which overdose result in death Depression of medullary and cardiovascular centers
"Date rape drug" Flunitrazepam (rohypnol)
The most important sign of withdrawal syndrome Excessive CNS stimulation (seizures)
Treatment of withdrawal syndrome involves Long-acting sedative-hypnotic or a gradual reduction of dose, clonidine or propranolol
These agents are CNS depressants Ethanol, Barbiturates, and Benzodiazepines
Withdrawal from this drug causes lethargy, irritability, and headache Caffeine
W/D from this drug causes anxiety and mental discomfort Nicotine
Treatments available for nicotine addiction Patches, gum, nasal spray, psychotherapy, and bupropion
Chronic high dose abuse of nicotine leads to Psychotic state, overdose causes agitation, restlessness, tachycardia, hyperthermia, hyperreflexia, and seizures
Tolerance is marked and abstinence syndrome occurs Amphetamines
Amphetamine agents Dextroamphetamines and methamphetamine
These agents are congeners of Amphetamine DOM, STP, MDA, and MDMA "ecstasy"
Overdoses of this agent with powerful vasoconstrictive action may result in fatalities from arrhythmias, seizures, respiratory depression, or severe HTN (MI and stroke) Cocaine "super-speed"
Most dangerous of the currently popular hallucinogenic drugs, OD leads to nystagmus, marked hypertension, and seizures, presence of both horizontal and vertical nystagmus is pathognomonic PCP
Removal of PCP may be aided Urinary acidification and activated charcoal or continual nasogastric suction
THC is active ingredient, SE's include impairment of judgment,andreflexes,decreases in blood pressure and psychomotor performance occur Marijuana
Created by: tessah10