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osetoclast major resorptive cells of bone
osteoclast large, multinucleated cells with short life spans which develop from the hematopoietic stem cell in the bone marrow stroma and adjacent vessels
osteoclast develop from mononuclear phagocytic cells
osteoclast contain lysosomes (digestive vacuoles) filled with hyrdolytic enzymes
osteocyte transformed osteoblast that is trapped or surrounded in osteoid as it harden from minerals that enter during calcification
osteocyte synthesize certain matrix molecules assisting bone calcification
osteocyte obtains nutrients from capillaries in the canaliculi and help concentrate them in the matrix
osteocyte synthesize and replace needed elements of the matrix.
osteocyte help maintain mineral homeostasis with the help of PTH and osteoblast cells
Osteoblast produces type 1 collagen
Osteoblast responsive to parathyroid hormone
osteoblasts produces osterocalcin when stimulated by 1,2,5-dihydroxyvitamin D.
osteoblasts active on outer surface of bones, form a single layer of cells
osteoblasts bring about formation of new bone by their synthesis of osteoid.
osteoid non-mineralized bone matrix
osteoblast bone-forming cells; lay down new bone. Once function is complete become osteocytes
Osteocyte osteoblast that have become imprisoned within the mineralized bone matrix; help maintain bone by synthesizing new bone matrix molecules.
osteoclasts function primarily to resorb (remove) new bone during the process of growth and repair
Calcium and phosphorus principle minerals stored in bone.
Fat (adipose tissue) stored within bone cavities; if needed are released into the blood and used by other tissues as a source of energy
Skeletal Muscle attach to bones by tendons.
tendons strong bands of fibrous tissue
Contraction of skeletal muscles moves the bones, producing body movements.
joints formed where two or more bones come together, permit and control the movement between bones
smooth cartilage covers the ends of bones within some joints; allows the bones to move freely.
Ligaments allow some movement between bones, but prevents excessive movements.
Bone hard and protect the organs it surrounds
skull encloses and protects the brain
vertebrae surround the spinal cord
rib cage protects the heart, lungs, and other organs of the thorax
rigid, strong bone suited for bearing weight and is the major supporting tissue of the body.
Cartilage provides firm yet flexible support within certain structures, such as the nose, external ear, rib cartilages, and trachea.
Ligament strong bands of fibrous connective tissue that attaches to bones and holds them together.
Muscle consists of hundreds to thousands of muscle cells, plus connective tissue wrappings, blood vessels and nerve fibers
Muscle covered externally by epimysium
Fascicle Discrete bundle of muscle cells, segregated from the rest of the muscle by a connective tissue sheath
Muscle Fiber elongated multinucleate cell; banded (striated) appearance
Muscle fiber surrounded by endomysium
Fascicle surrounded by perimysium
Functional unit of the muscle Sacromere
Filaments composed of actin and myosin
M line only myosin
Motor Unit each anterior horn cell, its axon and the muscle fibers innervated it.
motor unit composed of lower motor neurons, which extend to skeletal muscles
motor unit termed the functional unit of the neuromuscular system
Behaves as a single entity and contracts as a whole when it receives an electrical impulse motor unit
Isometric contraction static or holding contraction
Contraction which the muscle maintains constant length as tension is increased isometric
the type of contraction that occurs when the arm or leg is pushed against an immovable object. isometric
the muscle maintains a constant tension as it moves. But different length isotonic contraction
contractions can be eccentric (lengthening) or concentric (shortening). isotonic
positive work accomplished during concentric contraction, and energy is released to exert force or lift a weight.
contraction the muscle lengthens and absorbs energy. eccentric contraction
Triad consists of : Terminal Cisterna, Transverse tubule, terminal cisterna
Actin and myosin myofilaments do not change length during contraction of skeletal muscle fibers? True or False True
During contraction, actin myofilaments at each end of the sarcomere slide past the myosin myofilaments toward the H-zone? T or F True
During contraction, I-bands shorten? T or F True
During relaxation, I-bands shorten? Tor F False
During contraction, A- bands shorten? T or F False
During relaxation, A-bands lengthen? Tor F False
During contraction, H-zone narrows? T or F True
During contraction, the H-zone narrows or disappears as the myosin myofilaments meet at the center of the sarcomere? T or F True
As the actin myofilaments slide over the myosin myofilaments, the Z-disks are brought closer together and the sarcomere is shortened. T or F True
Sacromeres lengthen during skeletal muscle contraction? T or F False
Epiphyseal plates are soft tissue; where bone growth happens? T or F True
Epiphyseal lines form before fusion; growth does not happen. T or F False
An action potential is propagated along the sarcolema of the skeletal muscle, causing a depolarization to spread along the membrane of the T-tubule. T or F True
Calcium ions released from the sacroplasmic reticulum bind to tropomysin molecules in the actin myofilament. T or F False
Calcium ions released from the sacroplasmic reticulum bind to troponin molecules in the actin myofilament. T or F True
Troponin molecules bound to G actin molecules are released when calcium is bound to troponin. T or F True
During contraction of a muscle, calcium ions bind to troponin causing exposure of active sites on the actin myofilaments. T or F True
The myosin molecules attach to the exposed active sites on the actin myofilaments to form cross bridges, and phosphate is released from the myosin head. T or F True
An ATP molecule binds to the myosin head resulting in the release of actin from myosin. T or F True
Energy is stored in the rod of the myosin myofilament. T or F False
The whole muscle may be controlled by several motor nerve axons. T or F True
Which of the following is a unipennate muscle? extensor digitorum longus
Parallel muscle sartorius
Bipennate muscle rectus femoris
Circular orbicularis oculi orbicularis oris
Convergent muscle pectoralis major
First process of propulsion swallowing
Mechanical digestion includes chewing in the mouth, segmentation in the small intestine and churning in the stomach. T or F True
Peristalsis occurs in the small intestine, large intestine, stomach, and esophagus. T or F True
All digestive vessels go to the hepatic system first. T or F True
Peristalsis goes in only one direction. T or F True
The external muscularis muscle includes only a circular muscle layer and a longitudinal muscle layer. T or F False
The mucosa of the stomach includes surface epithelium, lamina propia, and muscularis mucosa. T or F True
Submucosa layer contains submucosal plexus. T or F True
The common hepatic ducts combine to form the right and left hepatic ducts. T or F False
The right and left hepatic ducts from the liver lobes combine to form the common hepatic duct. T or F True
The common hepatic duct combines with the cystic duct from the gall bladder to form the common bile duct. T or F True
The common bile duct and the pancreatic duct combine to form the hepatopancreatic ampulla. T or F True
The hepatopancreatic ampulla empties into the duodenum at the minor duodenal papilla. T or F False
The hepatopancreatic ampulla empties into the duodenum at major duodenal papilla.
The largest organ in the abdominal cavity Liver
The liver is a retroperitoneal organ False
The liver is a intraperitoneal organ True
The liver is located in the right _____________region. Hypochondriac
The liver___________portion is in contact with the ___________portion of the diaphragm. superior; inferior
The gallbladder is located in the inferior region of the liver. T or F True
The functions of the liver are vascular, metabolic, secretory, and excretory. T or F True
The vascular function of the liver is store and filter blood
The metabolic function of the liver is concerned with most of the metabolic system of the body
The secretory function of the liver is bile formation and secretion
The functional unit of the liver is the liver lobule. T or F True
The liver lobule is constructed around a peripheral vein that empties into the hepatic veins--> Inferior vena cava. T or F False
Blood goes from the hepatic portal system to the___________ sinusoids
The sinusoids are flanked by the hepatic plates and receive blood from the small arterioles. T or F True
The sinusoids and the cells around them are always in contact with portal blood. T or F True
Every minute 1.1 L of blood flows from the portal vein into the liver sinusoids and 350 ml from the arterial system= 29% of resting cardiac output. T or F True
The liver normally stores a blood volume of 450 ml or almost 10% of the body's total blood volume. T or F True
The ____________cells clean the blood while it passes along the sinusoids in such an efficient way that no more than 1% of the bacteria entering the liver through the portal system will exit it to the hepatic veins. kupffer
The liver stores glycogen, converts fructose and galactose into glucose. T or F True
The liver is responsible for gluconeogensis and formation of many important chemical compounds in carbohydrate metabolism. T or F True
Sucrose= glucose + galactose False
Sucrose= glucose+fructose True
Maltose= glucose+glucose True
Maltose= glucose + galactose False
Lactose= Glucose + galactose True
The liver oxidizes fatty acids to supply energy. T or F True
The liver forms most lipoproteins, synthesizes cholesterol and phopsholipids, and converts carbohydrates and proteins into fat. T or F True
Deamination of aminoacids occurs during protein metabolism of the liver. T or F True
Formation of urea and the formation of plasma proteins occur in the kidney. T or F False
90% of all body proteins are formed in the liver and it can synthesize non essential amino acids by using transaminases. T or F False
The liver stores vitamins A, E, B12, and iron. T or F False
The zygomatic cells produce pepsin. T or F False
The zymogenic cells produce pepsinogen. T or F True
The parietal cells produce the HCL responsible for converting pepsinogen to pepsin. T or F True
The villus is composed of microvilli, capillaries (blood), and lacteal (lymph) T or F True
Flow from the small intestine to the anal canal is as follows: ilieum>ileocecal canal> vermiform appendix>cecum>ascending colon>right colic flexure> transverse colon>left colic flexure>descending colon>sigmoid colon>rectum>anal canal. T or F False
Created by: jmenzrn