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Airway Management

terminology and definitions

Fork at the lower end of the trachea where the two mainstem bronchi branch. carina
Insertion of a tube. intubation
Tube designed to be inserted into the trachea; oxygen, medication, or a suction catheter can be directed into the trachea through and endotracheal tube. endotracheal tube
Area directly above the openings of both the trachea and the esophagus. hypopharynx
Inadequate oxygenation or oxygen starvation. hypoxia
Opening to the trachea. glottic opening
Tube that leads from the pharynx to the stomach. esophagus
To provide ventilations at a higher rate to compensate for oxygen not delivered through intubation or suctioning. hyperventilate
Leaf-shaped structure that acts as a covering to the opening of the trachea and that it prevents food and foreign matter from entering it. epiglottis
Ring-shaped structure that circles the trachea at the lower portion of the larynx. cricoid cartilage
Two large sets of branches that come off the trachea at the lower portion of the larynx. bronchi
Voice box larynx
Microscopic sacs of the lungs where exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place. alveoli
Illuminating instrument that is inserted into the pharynx to permit visualization of the pharynx and larynx. laryngoscope
Esophageal intubation detector device that may be used to detect incorrect placement (or to verify correct placement) of the endotracheal tube. EIDD- esophageal intubation detector device
Placement of an endotracheal tube through the mouth and into the trachea. Orotracheal intubation
Windpipe, structure that connects the pharynx to the lungs. trachea
Two thin folds of tissue within the larynx that vibrate as air passes between them, producing sounds. vocal cords
Long, thin, flexible, metal probe stylet
Either of the two (right or left) large sets of branches that come off the trachea and enter the lungs. mainstem bronchi
Groove like structure anterior to the epiglottis. vallecula
Tube designed to be passed through the nose, nasopharynx, and esophagus. It is used to relive distention of the stomach in an infant or child. nasogastric (NG) tube
Area directly posterior to the nose. nasopharynx
Area directly posterior to the mouth. oropharynx
Pressure applies to the cricoid cartilage to suppress vomiting and bring the vocal cords into view; also called cricoid pressure. Sellick's maneuver
Why is food more apt to be aspirated into the right mainstem bronchus rather than the left mainstem bronchus? it splits off the carina at less of an angle than the left
The brain's center for respiratory control is located in the brainstem
When placing the endotracheal tube, the EMT-B uses direct visualization
Advantages of orotracheal intubation include: complete control of the airway, minimizes the risk of aspiration, allows for better oxygen delivery, allows for deeper suctioning of the airway
Complications of orotracheal intubation include: hypoxia, soft tissue trauma to lips/gums/airway, gagging, vomiting
This occurs when the endotracheal tube is advanced too deeply. right-mainstem intubation
Most serious complication of endotrachial intubation. esophageal intubation
The EMT should reassess endotracheal tube placement each time the patient is moved to prevent: accidental extubation
Most adult patients can be intubated using a size ___ straight blade or a size ____ curved blade. 2 or 3 straight blade, 3 curved blade
The straight blade is designed so the tip of the blade is inserted into the vallecula.
The cuff at the distal end of the endotracheal tube usually seals with how much air? 8-10 cc
When using an endotracheal tube of an infant or child less than 8 years of age, do not put this on the tube. a cuff
This part of the endotracheal tube is always this size, no matter what the internal diameter of the endotracheal tube. standard 15 mm adapter
An adult male shuld receive this size tube. 8.0 or 8.5 mm
In an adult, the properly placed tube will have the ___ cm mark at the teeth. 22 cm
Once the lubricated stylet is inserted, the endotracheal tube should be shaped like a hockey stick
Prior to securing an endotracheal tube, do these steps: insert an oral airway as a bite block, listen to both lungs, listen over the epigastrium
Before an intubation attempt, always check laryngoscope light bulb, cuff on tube, shape of the tube and stylet
The laryngoscope is designed to be held in this hand. left hand
Sellick's maneuver is designed to help reduce the risk of vomiting
Correct order for verifying tube placement by auscultation is: epigastrium, then left, then right
If breath sounds are diminished or absent of the left, but present on the right, it is likely the tube has advanced into the right mainstem bronchus
The EMT should make no more than __ attempts at orotracheal intubation. two
The narrowest point of an infant or small child's airway is the: cricoid ring
Preferred laryngoscope blade size for infants and small children. #1 straight
A nasogastric tube is commonly used on an infant or child patient to decompress the stomach and proximal bowel
If you are unable to ventilate the pediatric patient due to distention of the stomach, consider using a nasogastric tube
The main contraindication for nasogastric tube placement in the infanct or child is head or major facial trauma
The nasogastric tube should be measured from the tip of the nose around the ear to below the xiphoid process.
Four indications for when to perform orotracheal intubation: inability to ventilate the apneic patient, to protect the airway of a patient without a gag reflex or cough, to protect the airway of a patient unresponsive to any painful stimuli, cardia arrest
Six complications of deep suctioning that can be avoided by hyperventilation: cardiac disrhythmia, hypoxia, coughing, damaging to lining/mucosa of airway, spasm of bronchioles if catheter extends past carina, spasm of the vocal cords during orotracheal suctioning
Created by: UBEMT