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1409 Fluid Electro

Fluid and Electrolyte Blueprint 1409

Hypervolemia is a high volume of water in the intravascular fluid compartment. As the excess is pushed to the intrestiial space, edema occurs. May lead to circulatory overload or CHF if it remains untreated.
Pathophysiology of Hypervolemia Fluid Intake >Fluid Loss, Heart failure, Renal disease, Corticosteroid drugs, Fluid retention, Circulatory overload.
Healthy people do not ordinarily drink too much water
When people become ill they may take in more water than they can excrete, receive IV fluids too quickly, given tap water enemas...
Signs and Symptoms of Hypervolemia Weight gain, HTN, Normal temps, Full bounding pulse, skin warm and moist, puffy eyelids, engorge peri veins, dyspnea, tachypnea, hoarseness, crackles in lungs, Hct HGB RBC decreased, pitting edema, full skin turgor,
Hypervolemia Treatments and Interventions aim to restore fluid balance by treating the underlying disorder.
Hypervolemia treatments and interventions Fluid restrictions, reduce salt intake, avoid sweet drinks, med adjustments, slow or discontinue IV infusions, Frequent oral hygeine, discontinue drugs that promote urine elimination
Hypervolemia pts can swish and rinse their mouth but do not let them swallow!!
Hyponatremia is a low sodium level
Hyponatremia can be caused by loss of sodium, excess of water, excessive perspiration, vomiting, diarrhea, nasogastric suction, wasted tube feeding, adrenal insufficiency, fluid overload, cirrhosis of liver, excess hypotonic IV fluids,
Hyponatremia in a nutshell TOo few particles in too much water
In attempt to "fix" hyponatremia the body moves water to the interstitial spaces and cells via osmosis. The cells become swollen which causes the signs and symptoms
Signs and symptoms of Hyponatremia anorexia, headache, weakness, nausea, vomiting, mental disturbances, confusion, convulsions, coma,
Hyponatremia sodium defecit affects transmission of nerve impulses causing... abdominal cramps, muscle weakness
Hyponatremia treatments and interventions Normal saline, Severe deficit: hypertonic solutions : D10W, 3% saline, 20% Dextrose, TPN, LIpids (must be administered slowly to prevent pulmonary edema from occuring.
If too much water is the cause of hyponatremia.. fluid restriction, sodium gradually added
If sodium and water are lost in equal portions is the cause of hyponatremia treat with... extracelular fluid remains balanced but volume is low. Serum sodium levels are normal. Symptoms are related to circulatory
Created by: christinego