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final micro test 4

Cardiovascular and lymphatic infections

moderate # can enter bloodstream, & blood may become infected due to invasive procedures. Blood and lymph contain many phagocytes, and low in iron these are things of? Sepsis and Septic Shock
Sepsis & Septic Shock has bacteria that proligerate if defensins fail
Speticemia is acute illness, presence of persistence of microbes in blood
first clue of sepsis is fever, chills, accelerated breathing increased heart rate
spetic shock organ failure, uncontrollable low blood pressure, mortality rate rapidly increases
Most often cause of septic shock is release of endotoxins --> only gram (-) retained within in cell
initial symptoms not alarming with gram (-) sepsis because usually non-specific, treatment not usually administered, and rapid progression to lethal stage
Gram (-) sepsis lethal stage treatment may lead to more ________. may attempt ______ endotoxins, antibiotics
gram (-) sepsis lethal stage pt given neutralizing drugs for ____ & _____ inflammation LPS, cytokine
Xigris is used for lethal stage of sepsis what does it do it reduces clotting and is very expensive and only works in a minority of cases
Gram (+) sepsis is the most? Common
Gram (+) sepsis exotoxins leads to Shock
most common cause of neonatal sepsis streptococcus agalactiae (group B strep)
CDC testing recommendations for neonatal sepsis prior to vaginal birth, LIM broth and antibiotics during labor
Puerperal sepsis AKA puerperal fever/childbirth fever
Puerperal sepsis is a ______ infection nosocomial
Puerperal sepsis begins as uterus infection
what is the bug that usually causes puerperal sepsis Streptococcus pyogens (group A strep)
Progression from uterus to abdominal cavity can lead to puerperal sepsis
Puerperal sepsis is transmitted by hands or instruments usually bu birthing process
puerperal sepsis can be treated with____ and prevented by______ penicillin and hygiene
The heart has three layers what is the innermost layer named? endocardium
when there is inflammation of the endocardium what is it called. endocarditis
what is two types of endocarditis in the heart subacute & acute
what is the usual cause of subacute bacterial endocarditis alpha hemolytic streptococci
these two cocci may also be involved with subacute bacterial endocarditis but not as common what are they? enterococci & Staphylococci
subacute bacterial endocarditis tend to arise from other infections can you name some of these teeth, tonsils, body piercings (nose, tounge, nipples)
Subacute bacterial endocarditis may be cleared ______. quickly
these things could complicate subacute bacterial endocarditis abnormal heart valve, congential heart defects, rheumatic fever
if subacute bacterial endocarditis is untreated what would the outcome be? fatal
Acute bacterial endocarditis is caused by what bug? staphylococcus aureus
acute bacterial endocarditis finds way from initial site to the? heart valves
acute bacterial endocarditis causes rapid destruction of heart valves
if acute bacterial endocarditis is untreated it will be fatal within a few days
staphylococcus can calso cause pericarditis
Rheumatic Fever is caused by what bug? streptococcus pyogenes
rheumatic fever is a _________ complication autoimmune
rheumatic fever is usually seen in this age group 4-18 years
with rheumatic fever you may see short periods of ______ & _______. arthritis & Fever
it is also possible to see subcutaneous _______ at joints with Rheumatic fever nodules
1/2 the cases of rheumatic fever will cause this Heart valve damage
heart valve damage in rheumatic fever is due to this the M protein is missed directed and attacks the heart
the damage from the M protein in rheumatic fever can damage the heart and lead to heart failure and possible death
a autoimmune response to strep throat can cause this Rheumatic Fever
prophalictic injectionso f PCN G is given to prevent ______ until child is no longer getting strep throat Rheumatic Fever
10% of people who have Rheumatic fever develop this Sydenham's chorea
Sydenham's chorea is also known as Saint Vitus' Dance
Zoonotic disease is found in rabbit & ground squrrels
Tularemia Franscisella tularensis
Francisella tularensis can lead to? Sepsis
Francisella tularensis is what gram? gram (-) rod
francisella tularensis creats ulcers
Tularemia caused the lymph nodes to enlarge
in tularemia bacteria multiplies in the macrophages
90% in U.S. due to contact with rabbits aka rabbit fever what am I tularemia
Tularemia can also be transmitted by ______ or ______, aka deer fly fever ticks or insects
the respiratory form of tularemia is caused by? inhalation of contaminted dust, pneumonia and is on reportable list
what is the treatment of tularemia intracellular location concern in treatment, also use tetracycline
Brucellosis is also known as (AKA) undulating fever
what is the most common brucellosis bacterial zoonosis
brucellosis is not usually fatal
Brucellosis persists in _______ system reticuloendothelial
brucellosis is adapt at evading what type of cells phagocytic cells
brucellosis can infect many of these organ sytems
brucellosis is caused by this bug brucella bacteria
brucella bacteria is a gram ()? gram (-) coccobacillus
brucella bacteria is _____ and easily _____, this bug is also a potential _______ agent. small, aerosolized, bioterrorism
Brucellosis has 3 imortant species what are they? Brucella abortus, Brucella sius, brucella melitensis
Brucella abortus is found in ______ and causes this Cattle, spontaneous abortion
Brucella sius normally infects _____, and causes this swine, spontaneous abortaion
Brucella melitensis is the most ______, and causes most ______ cases, was an endemic in _____ and was imported into the _______. serious, human cases, mexico, U.S.
what are the symptoms for brucellosis? wide range, fever usually rising and falling, night sweats, and muscle aches
how do you diagnose Brucellosis serological test and a definitive would be isolation of brucella from blood or tissue
how do you treat brucellosis combination therapy, at least two antibiotics and is long term
Anthrax what is the bug bacillus anthracis
bacillus anthracis is isolated by Koch method
bacillus anthracis is a large gram? large gram (+) rod
bacillus anthracis is a _____ former endospore
bacillus anthracis is ____ and a _____ grower aerobic, slow
anthrax is usually found in ______ animales who consume spores from grass. grazing
examples of these animales carring anthrax is cattle and sheep
90% e.Faecium VRE has to do with gram (+) gram (+) sepsis
these people are at risk at getting anthrax who are they animal handlers, and those that work with wool and animal products
explain the process of anthrax infection caused by endospores, taken up by macrophages, it germinates, and then relesaes bacteria into the bloodstream, it replicates rapidly and secretes toxins
the virulence of anthrax has two exotoxins and these 2 have ability to gain entry to the cell what are these two edema toxin, lethal toxin
tell me about anthrax edema toxin localized edema and prevents phagocytosis
tell me about anthrax lethal toxins targets and kill macrophages
anthrax consits of a capsule composed of? amino acids and proligerates incontrollable
there are 3 forms of anthrax what are they? cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and inhalation (pulmonary)
90% of cutaneous anthrax occures _______, it enters through skin ______, and forms _______. this ______ ruptures, and creates black ______. naturally, lesion, papule, papule, eschar
cutaneous anthrax s/s are? and it rarely enters _______, and has a mortality rate of ___% if untreated low grade fever, malaise, bloodstream, 20%
Gastrointestinal anthrax is due to the ingestion of ______. S/S include _____ and abdominal ______. a key charteristic is ______ diarrhea due to ulcerated ______ in GI tract. Mortality rate is ___% if untreated. spores, nausea, pain, bloody, lesions 50%
if you were to eat uncooked foods such as hamburger what could you get Gastrointestinal anthrax
Inhalation anthrax is the most _______, and caused by the inhalation of ______. dangerous, endospores
1st day symptoms of inhalation anthrax are not alarming because they include. mild fever, cough, some chest pain
in the 1st stage of inhalation anthrax it can be stopped but if its now it will lead to these symptoms and kill the patient in this many hours bacteria enters bloodstream, proliferates, 24-36 hours
isolation and ID of _____ anthracis requires level ____ lab bacillus, 3
live stock are often vaccinated againt? anthrax
if wound causes ischemia wound becomes anaerobic, leads to necrosis, dying tissue provides nutrients these are charistics of Gangrene
the bug that causes gangrene is clostridium perfringens
clostridium perfringens are found in? soil, intestinal tract of animals and humans
clostridium perfringens is a gram ___ ____. gram (+) rod
clostridium oerfringens has terminal ____ and is tennis racket shaped endospores
clostridium perfringens causes this gas gangrene
gangreneproduces ___ and ___ CO2 and H2
the CO2 and H2 leads to ____ in gangrene swelling of tissue
the bacteria in gangrene produces toxins
the toxins and bacteria enter bloodstream and leads to systemic infeection
the enzymes in gangrene degrade collagen
Paseurell is caused by dog and cat bites
the bug for pasteurella is pasteurella multocida
pasteurella multocida is what gram gram (-) rod
cat scratch disease is also known as cat scratch fever
the bug that causes cat scratch fever is bartonella henselae
bartonella henselae is what gram and what air? gram (-) rod, aerobic
bartonella henselae infects within the cats? RBC
how is cat scratch fever transmitted by scratch
rat bite fever is uncommon and ___% result in disease 10%
what are the two main causes for rat bite feer streptobacillus monilliformis, spirllum minus
streptobacillus monilliformis is a gram ____ ____, and is highly ___________. gram (-) rod, pleomorphic
what are the symptoms of rat bite fever rash on extremitis and mortality rate of 10%
Spirillum minus (rat bite fever) in Asia is known as? Sodoku
spirillum minus is a gram (-) _____, and require microscopic diagnosis spirillium
this dieses killed more school aged children then all diseases combined in the 20th century rheumatic fever
1894 Alexander Yersin was the founder of the? Plague
there is a connection between fleas and ____. but fleas carried this diseas rats, plague
plague was one of the 1st acts of this bio-terrorism
what is the main vector of the plague the rat flea
there are 3 types of plague this one is spread by the fleas and this appears, and what kind of plague am I bubo appears, bubonic plague
a bubo is defined as swollen ____ nodes, and ____ to the touch, you have flue like symptoms and a fever as high as____. lymph, hot, 104
this plague cannot be spread person to person bubonic plague
septicemic plague traditonally comes from the bubo and is found in the ____, and in addition to flu symptoms, confusion _____ shock, and this can occur blood, septic, seizures
ring around the rosey was created because of this disease the plague
the plague leads to narcrotic tissue known as black death
with the plague blood draw must be done between ___ & ____ mins apart. 10-30
septicemic plague is also not spread person to person
the worst form of the plague is? pneumonic
pneumonic plague is very rare and is spread _____ to ______ adn there is no _____ involved. person to person, flea
a chaartistic sign with pneumonic plague is cough and bloody sputum
pneumonic plague can lead to respiratory failue and ______. there is no bubos but the lymph nodes are _____. shock, tender
the causitive organism of pneumonic plague is yersinia pestis
yersinia pestis requires oxygen and is considred ______ aerobic, is a gram () rod, and they do not move on their own, and do not form ______. facultative, (-), spores
the gram stain for yersinia is special as it has this apperance due to central vaculoe safety pin apperance
Yersinia pestis has to be in a special level 3 lab with mice, yersinia pestis also has a special proten what is the protein and what is called glycoprotein envelope called fraction 1
this glycoprotein in yersinia pestis must be looked for with this test FA testing
in FA culture you look for the presens of this. the presence of F1 antigen
how do you prevent the plague control, rat and flea population
relapsing fever has three differnt bugs what are they? Borrelia hermsii, borrelia parkerii, borrellia turicatae
relapsing fever is transmitted by soft ticks
what are the symptoms of relapsing fever fever over 40c, jaundice, rose colored skin spots and 3-5 days fever subsides
how do you diagnose relapsing fever observation of spirochete in blood (FDA)
HX of lyme disease 1975 lyme connecticut, 1982 borrelia burgdorferi/ dr. w. burgdorfer
causative agent of lyme disease borrelia burgdorferi
borrelia burgdorferi is the largest _____ shaped Spiral
these are characteristics of what bug? motil, 3 layered cell wall, and gram (-) borrelia burgdorferi
Borrelia burgodorferi has the ability to change shapes of ____, it can lay _____, and cause____ it also has a _____ layer antigens, dormant, replapse, slime
the antigen on the inner membrane of borrelia burgdorferi confuses the _____ system and unable to ____ easily immune, kill
how is borrelia burgdorferi transferred Ixodes deer tick, and ixodes pacificus tick pacific coastal
borrelia burgdorferi is also transmiited by mice, squirrels, small animals and the deer tick
what are key charistics of lyme disease bulls eye rask, and immune and nervous system affected
this is a later sign and symptoms of lyme disease Strange behavior-> delayed behavior, drastic mood swings
the advance stages of lyme disease is facial paralysis, CNS
how do you diagnose lyme disease ELISA, western blot (similiar to elisa but looks for proteins)
it takes Borellia burgdorferi ___ to___ hours to divide compared to staphylococcus and streptococcus 20 mins to double, this makes it hard to detect 12-24 hours
how do you remove a tick tweezers, close to skin, soap and water, no squashing
Created by: krw882