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chapter 6 - anatomy

contractility ability to shorten w/ force
excitability ability to respond to stimulus
extensibility ability to be stretched
elasticity ability to recoil after being stretched
epimysium connective tissue sheath that surrounds skeletal muscle
fascia connective tissue that is outside the epimysium that separates muscles
what do muscles do that are essential to the body's maintenance? produce heat
fasciculi numerous visible bundles of muscle
perimysium loose connective tissue that surrounds the fasciculi
what are fasciculi composed of? single muscle cells called muscle fibers
endomysium surrounds each muscle fiber
myofibrils threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other
actin myofilaments thin myofilaments(looks like pearls twisted together)
myosin myofilaments thick myofilaments(looks like mini golf clubs)
sarcomeres join end to end to form myofibril
what is on each side of the Z line? I bands: which consists of actin
what does the H zone consist of? myosin ONLY
What is the charge difference between membranes called? resting membrane potential
what is action potential? the brief reversal back of the charge of stimulus
motor neurons nerve cells that carry action potential to skeletal muscle fibers
neuromusclular junction axons that branch into the muscle and connect
motor unit single motor neuron and all skeletal muscle innervates
presynaptic terminal enlarged nerve terminal
synaptic cleft space between the presynaptic terminal and muscle cell
postsynaptic terminal muscle fiber
synaptic vesicles they secrete neurotransmitters
acetylcholine neurotransmitters
what is creatine phosphate? a high energy molecule
what does anaerobic respiration mean? w/o oxygen
aerobic respiration with oxygen
what is oxygen debt? amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose
what is muscle fatigue? results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced
what does isometric mean? length of the muscle stays the same nut tension increases
what does isotonic mean? muscle length changes but tension stays same
muscle tone constant tension produced by muscles for long periods of time
fast twitch fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly
slow twitch fibers contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue
origin of the muscle most stationary end of muscle
insertion part of muscle undergoing most movement
belly of muscle inbetween origin and insertion
can muscles have more then one origin? yes
what are synergists? muscles that work together
what are antagonists? muscles that work against each other
what is a prime mover? a muscle in a group of synergists that does the most moving
what does the occipitofrontalis do? moves eyebrows
orbicularis oris? moves mouth
orbicularis oculi? closes eyes
buccinator? flattens cheeks
zygomaticus? smile
levator labii superioris? snarling
depressor anguli oris? frowning
two types of chewing muscles masseter and temporalis
what are intrinsic muscles? changes the shape of the tongue
what are extrinsic muscles? moves tongue
prime neck mover? sternocleidomastoid
what is torticollis? wry neck
Created by: jess_call11