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Exam 6 CA NS 2013

Anything that pertains to exam 6, that is important

QuestionAnswer
Sexually Transmitted Diseases Infectious diseases most commonly transmitted through sexual contact Can also be transmitted by Blood Blood products Autoinoculation
Barriers to discussing sex with patient Embarrassment in front of friends, awkwardness to ask the older patient's about sex life.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (cont.) Can be bacterial or viral Usually start as lesions on genitals or mucous membranes and can spread to other areas
What is the best protection agains't STDs? Condom is best protection against STDs but still is not used frequently in general population.
Oral contraceptive effects on acidity of Vaginal/Cervical secretions can? Promote the growth of certain organisms, causing STDs.
2nd most frequent in the US. Highest in adolescent and african americans. Gram-negative Bacteria. Direct physical contact with infected host. Easily killed by drying, heating, or washing with antiseptic. Gonorrhea
Initial site is urethra. Symptoms develop 2-5 days after infection. Dysuria, Profuse, purulent urethral discharge. It is unusual to be asymptomatic. Gonorrhea - clinical manifestations in men.
Mostly asymptomatic or have minor symptoms. Vaginal discharge, dysuria, frequency of urination. Redness and swelling, greenish yellow purulent, may abscess after incubation. Gonorrhea - Clinical manifestations in women.
Usually from anal intercourse. Soreness, itching, and discharge of anus. Anorectal gonorrhea
Why would you be alerted to a woman saying she gets checked for everything once a year..? Because she is probably talking about the pap, and STDs are not tested in a PAP, only HPV might show up on a pap.
Complications - Prostatitis, urethral strictures, and sterility. Often seek treatment early, so less likely to develop complications. Gonorrhea complications in Men
Complications- PID, bartholin's abscess, Ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Usually won't see symptoms so seldom seek treatment. Gonorrhea Complications in Women.
PO dose of Cefixime (suprax) IM dose of Ceftriaxone (rocephin) Early drug therapy for curative Gonorrhea
Azithromycin (zithromax) and Doxycycline (vibramycin) Drug therapy used to treat coexisting Syphilis and Chlamydia
Caused by Treponema pallidum Spirochete bacterium Enters the body through breaks in skin or mucous membranes Pathophysiology of Syphilis
Complex disease in which many organs and tissues can become infected. Causes production of antibodies that react with normal tissues. Not all exposures cause disease. Pathophysiology of syphilis
Destroyed by drying, heating, or washing. Spread through sex, contact with the lesions, and sharing of needles. Spread of Syphilis
Exhibit Chancres - painless indurated lesions. Occur 10 - 90 days after inoculation. Lasting 3-6 weeks. Late symptoms can cause irreparable damage to bone, liver, or skin. Aneurysm may press on nerves and cause pain. Symptoms of syphilis.
Causes degeneration of brain with mental deterioration. Tabes dorsalis causes nerve involvement. Neurosyphilis
Benzathine Penicillin G (bicillin) Aqueous Procaine Penicillin G Recurring or persistent sympotoms after drug therapy are re-treated. Drug Therapy for Syphilis
Most commonly reported STD in the US. Incidence is 3 times higher in women than men. Major contributor to PID, ectopic pregnancy, Infertility in women, and Urethritis in men. Chlamydial Infections
Caused by Chlamydia Trachomatis. Gram-negative bacteria. Largely underreported because infected persons are asymptomatic. Transmitted during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Closely associated with gonococcal infections. Pathology of Chlamydial Infections
"Silent disease" symptoms may be absent or minor. Nucleic acid amplification test. Direct fluorescent antibody. Enzyme immunoassay. Chlamydia
Not a reportable disease in most states. True incidence difficult to determine. More than 45 million infected in the united states: 1 in 5 americans. Genital Herpes.
Caused by Herpes simplex Virus (HSV). enters through mucous membranes or breaks in the skin during contact with infected persons. HSV reproduces inside cell and spreads to surrounding cells. Pathology of Genital Herpes.
Recurrence when Virus descends to initial site of infection. Persists for life. Virus sheds even in absence of lesion. Genital Herpes Occurrence
Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, malaise, abnormal vaginal bleeding, menstrual abnormalities Can lead to chronic pain and infertility Chlamydial Infections, Symptoms in women
Epididymitis Unilateral scrotal pain Swelling Tenderness Fever Possible infertility and reactive arthritis Chlamydia Infections, symptoms in men
Causes infection above the waist HSV - 1 Herpes
Frequently infects genital tract and perineum HSV-2 herpes ALTHOUGH both HSV's can cause disease on mouth and genitals.
Burning or tingling at site, small vesicular lesion appear on penis, vulva, perineum, perianal areas, vagina, or cervix. Vesicles contain large quantities of infectious virus particles. Primary (initial) episode of Genital herpes symptoms.
Primary lesions present for 17-20 days, new lesions sometimes continue to develop for 6 weeks, lesions will heal spontaneously Characteristics of lesions of Genital herpes Primary episode.
Occurs in 50% to 80% in following year Triggers Stress Fatigue Sunburn Menses Clinical manifestations of recurrent genital herpes
Condoms, abstinence, and Monogamous single partner relationships without infection These are the best ways to keep from contracting STDs
HSV infection of the eye, resolves within 1 to 2 weeks. Can progress to ulcers. Most common cause of corneal ulceration and blindness in the US. Herpes simplex virus keratitis
Acyclovir (Zovirax) Valacyclovir (Valtrex) Famciclovir (Famvir) Not a cure, but shorten duration and healing time and reduce outbreaks. Drug Therapy for Herpes simplex virus
sometimes referred to as "trich", is a common cause of vaginitiscaused by the single-celled protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis producing mechanical stress on host cells and then ingesting cell fragments after cell death. Trichomoniasis
THE most COMMON STD in the US. Caused by HPV. Incubation can be 10 years! Highly contagious. Frequently seen in young, sexually active adults. Minor trauma causes abrasions for HPV to enter and proliferate into warts. Genital Warts
Discrete single or multiple growths, white to gray and pink-fleshed colored, may form large cauliflower-like masses. What genital warts may looks like.
More than 100 types identified. Some harmless and self-limiting, while others have oncogenic potential, two thirds of early lesions are undetectable by visual examination. Random genital wart facts
Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) Bichloroacetic acid (BCA) Podophyllin resin - For small external genital warts Chemical treatments for HPV genital warts
Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen, electrocautery, laser therapy, use of a-interferon, and surgical excision. This is done if warts do not regress with previously mentioned therapies.
AIDS is an advanced stage of what kind of chronic infection? HIV
Can only be transmitted under specific conditions that allow contact with infected blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk. Transmission of HIV
Individuals can transmit HIV to other within how long after becoming infected. Just a few days.
Duration, frequency of contact, volume, virulence and concentration of the organism. This determines how likely it is to transmit the disease.
HIV is not spread casually, what are some ways that HIV is not transmitted. Hugging, dry kissing, shaking hands, sharing eating, utensils, using toilets seats, tears, saliva, urine, emesis, sputum, feces, sweat, respiratory droplets, enteric routes, or casual encounters in any setting.
What is the most common mode of transmission of HIV? Sexual transmission - coming in contact with semen, vaginal secretions and blood. Homosexual sex between men account for the majority of cases, but heterosexual is the most common between women and men.
Most common route of transmission for children, and what preventative measures can be taken? Perinatal transmission gives a 25% chance of transmitting to a child, but with use of ART the risk can be dropped down to less then 2%.
Breast swelling and tenderness, bloating, weight gain, Acne, Sleep changes, fatigue, decreased sexual desire, Aggression, depression, sadness, hopelessness, anxiety, mood swings, decreased alertness, anger, irritability. Premenstrual Syndrome!!!
A severe form of premenstrual syndrome(PMS), causes physical and mood related symptoms that seriously disrupt a woman's life and relationships. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder(PMDD)
Refers to the failure of menstrual cycles to begin by age 16 years or by age 14 years if secondary sex characteristics are present. Primary amenorrhea
Refers to the cessation of menstrual cycles once they had been established. Secondary amenorrhea
Long intervals between menses, generally greater than 35 days Oligomenorrhea
Excessive or prolonged menstrual bleeding Menorrhagia
Irregular bleeding or bleeding between menses metrorrhagia
Abdominal cramping pain or discomfort associated with menstrual flow. This degree of pain and discomfort varies with the individual. Dysmenorrhea
a group of bacteria that can cause a number of diseases as a result of infection of various tissues of the body. High fever, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, myalgia, and sunburn-like rash Staphylococcus aureus
42 to 58 yrs old, loss of estrogen, HRT/non-hormonal therapy. Cessation of menses associated with declining ovarian function. Usually considered complete after 1 year of amenorrhea Menopause
Commonly found in mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and vaginal, pruritus, thick white curdlike discharge; KOH microscopic examination- pseudohyphae; pH 4.0 - 4.7 Vulvogavinal Candidiasis (VVC)
Antifungal agents (monistat, gyne - lotrimin, mycelex) Fluconazole 150mg orally as single dose. Drug therapy for vulvovaginal candidiasis
Sexually transmitted; Pruritus; frothy greenish or gray discharge; hemorrhagic spots on cervix or vaginal walls; saline microscopic examination-swimming trichomonads; pH>4.5 Trichomonas Vaginitis
metronidazole 2g orally in single dose or 500 mg orally twice a day for 7 days for patient and partner Drug therapy for trichomonas Vaginitis
Mode of transmission unclear; Watery discharge with fishy odor; may or may not have other symptoms; saline microscopic examination-epithelial cells; pH>4.5 Bacterial Vaginosis
Metronidazole 500mg orally or clindamycin 300mg orally twice a day for 7 days or clindamycin vaginal cream in single dose; examine and treat partner Drug therapy for bacterial vaginosis
Sexually transmitted; mucopurulent discharge with postcoital spotting from cervical inflammation; culture for chlamydia and neisseria gonorrhoeae Cervicitis
Infection of the pelvic cavity. Causes may be sexual intercourse, childbirth, pelvic surgery, pregnancy termination, douching, use of IUD. Symptoms - Lower abdominal pain, pain with walking, spotting after intercourse, fever, chills, can be asymptomatic Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
Normal endometrial tissue that is outside the endometrial cavity Cause is unknown Endometriosis
Uterine fibroids – noncancerous Most common benign tumors of female genital tract Unknown cause Leiomyomas
Projectile growth that protrudes through the cervical os Very common, especially in woman over 20 who have been pregnant Cervical Polyps
Solid cyst Usually grow slowly and rarely undergo malignant transformation Benign Ovarian Tumors
A chronic disorder that occurs when many cysts form on ovaries Etiology is unknown Most common cause of infertitlity Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
Mastalgia is breast pain and is generally classified as either cyclical (associated with menstrual periods) or noncyclic. Mastalgia
Breast infections are usually caused by a common bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) found on normal skin. The bacteria enter through a break or crack in the skin, usually on the nipple. Mastitis
The lumpiness is due to small breast masses or breast cysts. A very common condition and it is benign. This is the most common cause of lumpy breasts in women. Fibrocystic changes
Risk factors Female Over 50 yrs old Family Hx Personal Hx of breast, colon, endometrial, or ovarian cancer Early menarche/Early menopause 1st pregnancy after 30 yrs old Weight gain and obesity after menopause Breast cancer risk factors
Fat intake Physical inactivity Alcohol intake Chemical exposure Radiation exposure Not breastfeeding Working at night Other risk factors for developing breast cancer
A mammogram, ultrasound, MRI, or biopsy my be used to determine this kind of cancer. Breast cancer Diagnostic studies
Chemoprevention, Prophylactic mastectomy, BSE Prevention for breast cancer
Lump, Abnormal mammogram, Nipple discharge and retractions, dimpling, and orange peel' skin Clinical manifestations of breast cancer
Surgical procedures, Radiation, Chemotherapy Therapy for brease Cancer
Accumulation of lymph in soft tissue. This can occur as a result of excision of lymph nodes (for example mastectomy). The fluid can accumulate in the arm, causing obstructive pressure on the veins and venous return. Lymphedema
Fear, Pain, Disturbed body image, and impaired mobility These are nursing Dx for postoperatively care.
This cancer is the most common Gynecologic malignancy. Relatively low mortality rate, because most cases are diagnosed early. Survival rate is over 95% Endometrial Cancer
A rare breast malignancy characterized by a persistent lesion of the nipple and areola with or without a palpable mass. Paget's disease of the breast
<2 cm tumor size, no lymph node involvement, and will not metastasize Stage I breast cancer
No evidence of tumor ranging to 5cm. No lymph node involvement, or 1-3 axillary nodes and/or internal mammary nodes, and no metastasis. Stage II-A Breast cancer
Ranging from 2cm to >5cm. No lymph node involvement, or 1-3 axillary nodes and/or internal mammary nodes. No metastasis. Stage II-B breast cancer
No evidence of tumor ranging to >5cm. There will be lymph node involvement, 4-9 axillary nodes and/or internal mammary nodes. No metastasis. Stage III-A breast cancer
Any size with extension to chest wall or skin. There will be lymph node involvement, 4-9 axillary nodes and/or internal mammary nodes. no metastasis. Stage III-B breast cancer
Any size of tumor. There will be lymph node involvement, 10 or more axillary nodes, internal mammary nodes, or infraclavicular nodes. No metastasis. Stage III-C breast cancer
Any size of tumor. Any type of nodal involvement. The big one with this is there is going to be metastasis! Stage IV Breast cancer
Acute HIV infection lasts how long and what are the symptoms? Generally occur 2-4 weeks after initial infection and lasts for 1 to 2 weeks. May cause fever, swollen lymph glands, sore throat, headache, malaise, nausea, muscle and joint pain, diarrhea, and/or diffuse rash.
Early Chronic HIV infection and symptoms CD4+ T-cell count remains above 500 cells/uL, viral load will be low. May not know their infected so may continue high-risk behavior. fatigue, fever, night sweats, headache often occur.
Intermediate Chronic HIV Infection and symptoms CD4+ t-cell count drops to 200-500, viral load increases, HIV to more active stage. Earlier symptoms become worse. most common infection in this phase is thrush or candidiasis
Late Chronic HIV infection or AIDS Immune system becomes severely compromised. virus load increases, CD4+ t-cells decrease,risk of developing one or more opportunistic diseases.
Causes upper respiratory tract infection, pneumonia Adenoviruses; Rhinovirus
Syndrome of fever malaise, headache, myalgia; aseptic meningitis; encephalitis Arbovirus
causes upper respiratory infection Coronavirus, Parainfluenza 1-4, reoviruses 1,2,3
Causes upper respiratory tract infection, gastroenteritis, acute myocarditis, and aseptic meningitis Coxsackieviruses A and B
Causes upper respiratory tract infection, gastroenteritis, aseptic meningitis (minus the acute myocarditis) Echoviruses
(herpesvirus) Causes gastroenteritis; pneumonia and retinal damage in immunosuppressed individuals, infectious mononucleosis like syndrome Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
(herpesvirus) Causes mononucleosis, burkitt's lymphoma(possibly) Epstein-Barr
(herpesvirus) Causes herpes labialis (fever blisters), and genital herpes infection Herpes simplex, type 1
(herpesvirus) causes genital herpes infection Herpes simplex, type 2
(herpesvirus) Causes chickenpox; shingles Varicella-zoster
Causes HIV infection; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Causes upper respiratory tract infection, H1N1 (swine) flu, and avian (bird) flu Influenza A and B
Parotitis, and orchitis in postpubertal males Mumps
Causes warts Papovavirus
Causes Gastroenteritis Parvovirus
This causes Rabies.... its pretty obvious Rhabdovirus
Transmitted by unprotected sexual contact with HIV infected partner. Spread in semen, vaginal secretions, and or blood, breast milk, and through childbirth. HIV attacks T-cells. How HIV is transmitted
fever, swollen lymph glands, sore throat, headache, malaise, nausea, muscle and joint pain, diarrhea and rash. Some people develop neurological complications such as aseptic meningitis, peripheral neuropathy, facial palsy, or Gillian- Barre syndrome. Acute symptoms of HIV
The median interval between untreated HIV and AIDS is 11 years. This phase is known as asymptomatic disease although fatigue, headache, low-grade fever, night sweats can occur. People can transmit HIV to others even when they have no symptoms. Early chronic symptoms of HIV
Persistent fever, frequent drenching night sweats, chronic diarrhea, headaches, and fatigue. Infections occur, lymphadenopathy, and nervous system manifestations. Oropharyngeal candidiasis or thrush! Shingles, vaginal infections, herpes, and Kaposi. Intermediate chronic symptoms of HIV
Made by detecting HIV antibodies and or antigens in the blood. Diagnosis of HIV
Late chronic HIV. Viral load increases. People with AIDS have a risk of developing one or more opportunistic diseases that contribute to disability and increases risk of death. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (AIDS)
malignancies, wasting, and dementia can result from immune impairment. Organisms can cause debilitating, disseminated, and life threatening infections during this stage. Symptoms of Late HIV or AIDS
T-cell count drops below 200 cells, Having one of the opportunistic infections, Having one of the opportunistic cancers, Wasting syndrome, aids dementia complex You must have one of the these to be diagnosed with AIDS.
enters the body through very small breaks in the skin or mucous membranes. Its entry is facilitated by minor abrasions that often occur during sexual intercourse. It is spread through sexual contact, contact with infectious lesions, and sharing needles. Syphilis
Created by: nswift55