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Human Behavior

UTSW 2012 Human Behavior

QuestionAnswer
What were the major observations of Harry Harlow's work? - He noticed that when he isolated infant monkeys, they were physically healthy BUT they were NOT behaviorally normal. - When he added 'mothers' into the equation, the monkey's preferred the mother that provided comfort, not food
How does John Bowlby describe attachment in humans? •Bonding is not dependent pathology; it's essential to mental health •Innate behavioral system: visual tracking, clinging, proximity, vocalization of distress/satisfaction
What are the different attachment styles in ‘Strange Situation’? •Secure ~70% •Insecure •Avoidant ~20% •Resistant/Ambivalent ~10% •Disorganized ~10%
Why do patients feel better after an appointment with their doctor? • Built on the foundation of adaptive attachment experience •Better outcomes: •increased patient satisfaction, •decreased risk of malpractice litigation, • improved patient adherence/patient outcomes for patients with chronic medical illness
Lectures 2 and 3 Lectures 2 and 3
What are Freud's 5 stages of psychosexual development? Oral Stage (0-1yr) Anal Stage (1-3yrs) Phallic Stage-penis envy (3-5/6yrs) Latency Stage-form superego(5/6yrs - puberty) Genital Stage (puberty - adult)
What is Freud's 'Oral' Stage? (0-1yr). Development is centered around a baby's mouth (where satisfaction is derived from). Eg. Sucking, Biting, Breast feeding. Oral stim could lead to 'oral fixation' (smokers, nail biters, etc)
What is Freud's 'Anal' Stage? (1-3yrs). 'EGO' develops here, libido now focused on the anus and child derives pleasure from pooping. Child is aware that they are a 'person' -Early potty training = anal-retentive -Liberal potty training = anal-expuslive
What is Freud's 'Phallic' Stage? (3-5/6yrs). Centered around ones genitals. Masturbation (both sexes) becomes new source of pleasure. Child becomes aware of anatomical diff. bt/w sexes --> leads to Oedipus complex (M) and Electra complex (F)
What is the Oedipus complex? In the phallic stage (Freud), what a boy loves most is his penis. Males develop 'castration anxiety'->male resolves conflict by imitating, copying, & joining dad in macho behav'rs. IDENTIFICATION-Adopting attitude, beliefs, and behav'rs of another person.
What is the Electra complex? In the phallic stage (Freud), girl briefly desires father, but realizes she's w/out a penis-->envy's boys-->resolves by subbing wish for penis w/ wish for baby --> IDENTIFICATION w/ mother
What is Freud's 'Latency' Stage? (5/6yrs-puberty). Libido=dormant ('latent' = hidden). A child's energy is directed at learning new skills & acquiring knowledge. Playing is largely confined to the children of the same gender.
What is Freud's 'Genital' Stage? (puberty-adult). t of sexual exp, where resolution = 1:1 committed relationship.
What is the concept of 'Fixation'? (Freud)When someone isn't able to move on from one stage->next. Ofter bc the individual needs weren't met (frustration) OR bc needs oversatisfied (overindulgence). 'Fixation'=part of ones libido is permanently invested in a particular stage of developmen
What are the names and ages of Piaget's Stages of Cognitive (Intellectual) Development? (0-2) sensorimotor (2-7) Preoperational (7-11) Concrete Operations (11-?) Formal Operations
What characterizes Piaget's 'Sensorimotor' Stage? (0-2yrs)Object Permanence(memory)~7mo! Accommodation, Assimilation, Symbolism.
What characterizes Piaget's 'Pre-operational' Stage? (2-7yrs)Intelligence demonstrated through use of symbols; language matures; memory/imagination develops. *Thinking is done in a 'non-logical','non-reversible' manner. Egocentric thinking = dominant
What characterizes Piaget's 'Concrete operational' Stage? (7-11yrs) Intelligence demonstrated through logical & systematic manipulation of symbols related to concrete objects. 'Operational thinking' develops and 'egocentric thinking' deminishes
What characterizes Piaget's 'Formal operational' Stage? (7-?) Intelligence demonstrated through logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts. Early in stage, u see a return to egocentric thought (teens). *Only 35% of HS grads attain this stage.
What is the 'Zone of Proximal Development' (ZPD)? (Vygotsky)Children can do more with the help of others than they could on there own. The ZPD = range of tasks that cannot yet be performed independently, but can be accomplished with the help of a more competent individual.
What is 'Scaffolding'? Example? (Vygotsky) This is the structure/guidance of a more experienced person. There are many ways to do this: 1)Break task down into small steps 2)Give motivation 3)Providing feedback *scaffolding instills the skills req for indiv problem solving in the fut
Why are 'language' and 'social tools' important in development? Language and thought = necessary to mediate challenges in an environment. Vygotsky said that the use of language and social tools are the two most important elements and individual needs to adapt to their environment.
For Erikson's theory of emotional development at the 'infant' stage, what is/are: (1)The approx age of appearance? (2)The psychosocial crisis? (3)The significant relationships? (4)The outcomes (+ or -)? (1)Birth - 18mo (2)Trust vs. Mistrust (3)Primary caregiver (4)Drive & Hope
For Erikson's theory of emotional development at the 'early childhood' stage, what is/are: (1)The approx age of appearance? (2)The psychosocial crisis? (3)The significant relationships? (4)The outcomes (+ or -)? (1)18mo - 3yrs (2)Autonomy vs. Shame (3)Parents (4)Self-control, courage, & will power
For Erikson's theory of emotional development at the 'play age' stage, what is/are: (1)The approx age of appearance? (2)The psychosocial crisis? (3)The significant relationships? (4)The outcomes (+ or -)? (1)3 - 5yrs (2)Initiative vs. Guilt (3)Family (4)Purpose
For Erikson's theory of emotional development at the 'school age' stage, what is/are: (1)The approx age of appearance? (2)The psychosocial crisis? (3)The significant relationships? (4)The outcomes (+ or -)? (1)6 - 12yrs (2)Industry vs. Inferiority (3)School & neighborhood peers (4)Method & competence
For Erikson's theory of emotional development at the 'adolescence' stage, what is/are: (1)The approx age of appearance? (2)The psychosocial crisis? (3)The significant relationships? (4)The outcomes (+ or -)? (1)12 - 18 (2)Identity (w/ social groups) vs. Role Confusion (3)Peers (NOT FAMILY) (4)Devotion and Fidelity
For Erikson's theory of emotional development at the 'young adulthood' stage, what is/are: (1)The approx age of appearance? (2)The psychosocial crisis? (3)The significant relationships? (4)The outcomes (+ or -)? (1)18 - 35 (2)Intimacy and Solidarity vs. Isolation (3)Sig. others and friends (still not family) (4)Affiliation and love
For Erikson's theory of emotional development at the 'middle adulthood' stage, what is/are: (1)The approx age of appearance? (2)The psychosocial crisis? (3)The significant relationships? (4)The outcomes (+ or -)? (1)35-55/65 (2)Generativity vs. Self-absorption (3)Persons @ work, community,& family (It's back!) (4)Production and care
For Erikson's theory of emotional development at the 'late adulthood' stage, what is/are: (1)The approx age of appearance? (2)The psychosocial crisis? (3)The significant relationships? (4)The outcomes (+ or -)? (1)55/65 - death (2)Integrity vs. Despair (3)All of mankind (4)Wisdom
What are the 6 stages of morality contained w/in Kolberg's 'theory of moral development'? Stage 1 - obedience and punishment Stage 2 - self interest Stage 3 - interpersonal accord and conformity Stage 4 - authority and social order obedience Stage 5 - social contract Stage 6 - universal ethical principles
What are the 3 levels of morality contained w/in Kolberg's 'theory of moral development'? level 1 - pre-conventional = stages 1&2 level 2 - conventional = stages 3&4 level 3 - post-conventional = stages 5&6
Created by: rklimczak