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Pharmacology Glossary Keyterms

Term Definition
abnormal involuntary movement scale A scale that rates dyskinetic movements but is not exclusively diagnostic for tardive dyskinesia.
absence (petit mal) epilepsy Seizures that occur primarily in children and consist of paroxysmal episodes of altered consciousness lasting for 5 to 20 seconds.
absorption When a drug moves from its site of administration to the blood.
acetylcholine "Acetic acid ester of choline chloride
acidification "Conversion into an acid (i.e.
actual nursing diagnosis "A clinical judgment based on human responses to life conditions and life processes that exist in an individual
acute pain "Pain that arises from sudden injury to the structures of the body (e.g.
addiction Tolerance or psychological or physical dependence.
additive effect "A drug interaction that occurs when two drugs with similar actions are taken
Adequate Intake (AI) A value based on observed or experimentally determined approximations of nutrient intake by a group of healthy people. The AI is used when the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) cannot be determined.
ADME "Acronym for the 4 stages of the drug cycle: absorption
administration set Device used to deliver a specified volume of intravenous solution to a patient.
adrenergic agents "Medications that cause effects similar to those produced by the adrenergic neurotransmitter; also called ""sympathomimetic agents."""
adrenergic blocking agent Drug that inhibits the adrenergic system.
adrenergic fibers Nerve endings of the autonomic nervous system that secrete the neurotransmitter norepinephrine.
adverse drug events (ADEs) Serious complications resulting from pharmaceutical treatment.
adverse effects The undesirable responses produced by a drug (other than its intended effect) when it affects more than one body system. Also known as side effects.
aerosols Medication that is inhaled through a flow of air or oxygen under pressure to disperse the drug throughout the respiratory tract.
affective domain "The most intangible portion of the learning process that deals with feelings
afferent nerves Nerves of the CNS that transmit signals from sensory receptors to the spinal cord and brain.
agonists Drugs that interact with a receptor to stimulate a response.
air embolism An air bubble in the cardiovascular system that obstructs blood flow.
akathisia "A syndrome consisting of subjective feelings of anxiety and restlessness and objective signs of pacing
akinesia An abnormal state of motor and psychic hypoactivity or muscular paralysis.
aldosterone The main mineralocorticoid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; its main biologic activity is to regulate the body's electrolyte and water balance by promoting the retention of sodium (and water) and the excretion of potassium.
allergens Antigenic substances that can produce an immediate hypersensitivity in the body.
allergic reactions "Reaction to a drug in which a patient has developed antibodies to previous exposure of the drug
allergic rhinitis Inflammation of the nasal mucosa secondary to an allergic reaction.
alpha receptor "Stimulation of alpha-1 receptors by norepinephrine causes vasoconstriction of blood vessels. Alpha-2 receptors mediate negative feedback
American Drug Index An index of all medicines available in the U.S; published by Facts and Comparisons.
"American Hospital Formulary Service Drug Information"
ampules Glass containers that usually contain a single dose of a medication.
analgesic "Medication to relieve pain
androgen Any steroid hormone that increases male characteristics; male sex hormone.
anergic Characterized by abnormal inactivity.
angina pectoris "Severe
antagonists Drugs that attach to a receptor but do not stimulate a response; used to block the receptor from attaching to another substance.
antagonistic effect A drug interaction in which one drug interferes with the action of another.
antibiotic Against life; antimicrobial agents derived from other living microorganisms; medications used to kill living microorganisms that cause infection.
anticholinergic agent Drug that inhibits the actions of acetylcholine by occupying the acetylcholine receptors.
anticipated therapeutic statements Statements documenting the effectiveness of patient care delivered.
anticipatory nausea and vomiting A conditioned response triggered by the sign or smell of the clinic or hospital or by the knowledge that chemotherapy is imminent.
anticoagulant Substance used to prevent blood clotting.
anticonvulsant Medication used to treat epilepsy.
antidepressants Several classes of drugs used for treating patients with symptoms of moderate to severe depression.
antiepileptic drug (AED) Medication used to treat epilepsy.
antigens Any substance that will lead to the formation of antibodies.
antigen-antibody A type of reaction after exposure to an allergen that causes inflammation and swelling of the respiratory passages. One of the major causes of symptoms associated with an allergy is the release of histamine during the antigen-antibody reaction.
antihistamine Agent given to neutralize histamine produced by the body. Often used to treat symptoms of allergies caused by the release of histamines.
anti-inflammatory agents "Drugs (e.g.
antitussive Relieving or preventing cough.
anxiety "A normal human emotion
anxiolytics "Antianxiety medications
apothecary system "A system of drug calculation that uses Roman numerals instead of Arabic numbers to express the quantity. The unit of weight is the grain
arterial blood gases (ABGs) The pH and partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
arterial blood pressure The pressure with which the blood is pushed from the heart. See also systolic blood pressure.
arteriosclerosis obliterans "Proliferation of the intima (the innermost of the three layers of the artery)
assessment An ongoing process that starts with the admission of the patient and continues until the patient is discharged from care.
asthma "An inflammatory disease of the bronchi and bronchioles characterized by intermittent periods of acute
atherosclerosis "Form of arteriosclerosis characterized by the accumulation of fatty deposits on the inner walls of arteries and arterioles
atonic seizure An absence seizure characterized by a sudden loss of muscle tone.
atrial fibrillation "Atrial arrhythmia characterized by rapid randomized contractions of the atrial myocardium
atrial flutter "A cardiac arrhythmia in which the atrial contractions are rapid (200 to 320 per minute)
atrioventricular block A blocking at the atrioventricular junction (the atria and ventricles contract independently of each other).
atypical antipsychotic agents (first generation) Drugs that inhibit dopamine receptors and inhibit serotonin receptors to varying degrees.
augmentation "To induce or to hasten (e.g.
autonomic nervous system "The portion of the nervous system that helps regulate such body functions as heart rate
bar code Code on most unit dose package labels used for electronic charting of medication administration and inventory control.
barrel The outer portion of a syringe on which the calibration for the measurement of the drug volume are located.
beta receptor "Stimulation of beta-1 receptors causes an increase in the heart rate; stimulation of beta-2 receptors relaxation of smooth muscle in the bronchi (bronchodilation)
biotransformation The process by which the body inactivates drugs. Also called metabolism.
bipolar disorder "A mood disorder characterized by distinct episodes of mania (elation
birth defect "An abnormality of a fetus that is present at birth. It can be inherited genetically
body mass index (BMI) A formula for determining obesity; typically calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of the person's height in meters.
botanicals Herbal medicines.
brand name "Drug name followed by the symbol ® indicating that the name is registered and that its use is restricted to the owner of the drug
bronchitis "A chronic irritation of the bronchi or of a bronchus
bronchodilation "Widening of the lumen of the bronchi
bronchodilators Drug therapy that relaxes the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree.
bronchospasm Narrowing of the airways through smooth muscle constriction.
buccal "Pertaining to the cheek. In drug administration
cancer "A disorder of cellular growth; growths are composed of abnormal cells that generally proliferate more rapidly than other cells
candidiasis A fungal infection caused by Candida albicans that appears in debilitated patients and patients taking a variety of medicines.
canker sores "The exact cause of these lesions is unknown
capsules "Small
carbohydrates "The major source of energy for body activities and metabolism. Often referred to as ""sugars"" because many of them taste sweet."
carcinogenicity The ability of a drug to induce living cells to mutate and become cancerous.
cardiac output (CO) The primary determinant of systolic pressure.
cardiovascular disease A collective term used to describe disorders of the circulatory system of the body.
case management "The coordination of patient care provided to individuals
catecholamine "Dopamine
ceiling effect The effect of agonists when increasing the dosage does not significantly increase the pharmacologic effect but definitely increases the incidence of side effects.
cell cycle-specific drugs A drug that is selectively toxic to a cell when the cell is in a specific phase of growth and is therefore schedule dependent.
cell cycle-nonspecific drugs A drug that is active throughout the cell cycle and may be more effective against slowly proliferating neoplastic tissue.
Celsius Temperature scale in which 0° is the freezing point of water and 100° is the boiling point. Also called centigrade.
centigrade Temperature scale in which 0° is the freezing point of water and 100° is the boiling point. Also called Celsius.
central devices Intravenous access device that is inserted into intermediate-sized veins and advanced into central veins for maximal mixing with large volumes of blood.
central nervous system The brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system.
cerebral palsy A nonspecific term used to describe a persistent qualitative motor disorder caused by nonprogressive damage to the brain.
changes in affect "Often a symptom of psychosis
chemical name "The chemical constitution of a drug
chemoprotective agents Drugs that help reduce the toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents to normal cells.
chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) Nausea and vomiting associated with the use of cancer chemotherapeutic drugs.
cholinergic agents "Medications that cause effects in the body similar to those produced by acetylcholine; also called ""parasympathetic agents"" because they mimic the action produced by stimulation of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system."
cholinergic fibers Nerve endings of the autonomic nervous system that liberate the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
chronic airflow limitation disease (CALD) Chronic obstructive illness. Used interchangeably with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Chronic obstructive illness. Used interchangeably with chronic airflow limitation disease (CALD).
chronic pain Pain that has slower onset and lasts longer than 6 months beyond the healing process. It is often subdivided into malignant (cancer) or nonmalignant (causes other than cancer) pain.
chronic stable angina "Precipitated by physical exertion or stress
chylomicron One of the five categories of lipoproteins consisting of about 90% triglycerides and 5% cholesterol.
clinical decision-making support systems (CDSS) Interactive computer programs that directly assist physicians and other health professionals with decision-making tasks.
clinical research "Phase of new drug development known as the ""testing in humans"" stage."
clonic phase "Epileptic phase manifested by bilaterally symmetric jerks alternating with relaxation of extremities. The clonic phase starts slightly and then gradually becomes more violent
closed-angle glaucoma Primary glaucoma that occurs when there is a sudden increase in intraocular pressure caused by a mechanical obstruction of the trabecular network in the iridocorneal angle.
cognitive domain The level at which basic knowledge is learned and stored; the thinking portion of the learning process that incorporates a person's previous experiences and perceptions.
cognitive symptoms "Symptoms that include the inability to concentrate
cold sores (fever blisters) "Fever blisters that are caused by the herpes simplex type 1 virus (herpes simplex labialis) and most commonly found at the junction of the mucous membrane and the skin of the lips or nostrils
collaborative problem "Physiologic complications that nurses monitor
combination therapy "The use of cell cycle-specific and cell-cycle nonspecific drugs that allows for cell death during different phases of the cell cycle; however
common adverse effects Symptoms that can be alleviated or prevented by actions of the nurse or patient that will require immediate planning for patient education.
Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties (CPS) Annual comprehensive list of the pharmaceutical products distributed in Canada as well as other information of practical value to health care professionals; published by the Canadian Pharmacists Association.
Compendium of Self-Care Products The nonprescription companion to the Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties that offers comparative tables on thousands of products and monographs on hundreds of commonly used nonprescription products.
compulsion "A repetitive
computer-controlled ordering and dispensing system Computerized medication delivery system in which single-unit packages are dispensed to the nurse for the patient.
computerized prescriber order entry (CPOE) "Ordering system used for medications and laboratory studies; this technology checks for potential drug interactions and appropriateness of drug dosages ordered
consent form Grants permission to the health care facility and physician to provide treatment to the patient.
constipation Infrequency or difficulty in movements of the bowels.
consultation reports "Section of the patient record where specialists' summary of findings
Controlled Drugs and Substance Act (Canada) Act passed in 1997 establishing the requirements for the control and sale of narcotics and substances of abuse in Canada. Also provides for the nonprescription sale of certain codeine preparations.
Controlled Substances Act "Act passed in 1970 designed to improve the administration and regulation of manufacturing
core measures "Measures of care that are tracked to show how often hospitals and health care providers use the care recommendations identified by evidence-based practice standards for patients being treated for conditions such as heart attack
cornea Transparent membrane forming the anterior or front part of the outer layer of the eyeball continuous with the sclera; is nourished from the looped blood vessels at its peripheral border.
coronary artery disease (CAD) "Any of the abnormal conditions affecting the arteries of the heart and producing pathologic effects
corticosteroids Hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex of the adrenal gland.
cortisol The major natural glucocorticoid hormone secreted by the human adrenal cortex.
cough One of the first symptoms of a respiratory disease. A reflex initiated by irritation of the airway. It is a protective mechanism for clearing excess secretions from the tracheobronchial tree.
creams Semisolid emulsions containing medicinal agents for external application.
cretinism "A chronic condition
critical care pathway "A standardized care plan derived from the ""best practice"" patterns
critical pathways "Comprehensive individualized plan of care that describes a multidisciplinary plan to track a patient's progress toward expected outcomes within a specified period. Also known as integrated care plans
cycloplegia Paralysis of the ciliary muscle of the eye.
cyclothymia A milder form of bipolar illness characterized by episodes of depression and hypomania that are not severe enough to meet the criteria for bipolar disorder.
cystitis Inflammation of the bladder.
decongestants Antihistamines and sympathomimetic amines frequently used in combination with analgesics in cold and flu remedies.
defining characteristics Manifestations or signs and symptoms.
delayed emesis "Vomiting that occurs 24 to 120 hours after the administration of chemotherapy. It is often triggered by brushing teeth
deltoid muscle "The shoulder muscle often used for intramuscular medication administration because of ease of access in the standing
delusion A false or irrational belief that is firmly held despite evidence to the contrary.
denominator The number in a fraction that is below the line.
dental caries Cavities caused by bacteria secreting acids that eat into the enamel of the teeth.
dentifrice "A pharmaceutic compound (usually a paste
dependence "A medical condition
dependent actions Nursing actions the nurse implements cooperatively with other members of the health care team for restoring or maintaining the patient's health.
depot antipsychotic medicine "Injectable
depression "A mood disorder in which patients display varying degrees of emotional
desired action The expected response that occurs when a drug enters a patient and is absorbed and distributed.
diabetes mellitus "A variety of metabolic disorders marked by inability of the body to store or utilize glucose. Includes type 1
diarrhea "Loose
diastolic blood pressure The lowest arterial pressure at any one time during the cardiac cycle. It results from the recoil of the elastic walls of the aorta and arteries and the pressure this recoil exerts on the blood. It is known as the resting pressure that is being constantly
diastolic dysfunction "A cause of heart failure that occurs when the left ventricle develops a ""stiffness"" and fails to relax enough between contractions to allow adequate filling before the next contraction. Symptoms of diastolic dysfunction are pulmonary congestion and per
Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) A series of tables compiled by the National Academy of Sciences that provides quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes; used for planning and assessing diets of health people.
dietary supplements "Herbal medicines
diffusion The process by which oxygen (O2) passes across the alveolar membrane to the blood in the capillaries and carbon dioxide (CO2) passes from the blood to the alveolar sacs for exhalation.
digitalis toxicity "Severe adverse effect of digitalis that includes anorexia
digitalization "The administration of a larger dose of digoxin for an initial period of 24 hours. After this ""loading"" period
dilator muscle Muscle that runs radially from the papillary margin to the iris periphery; it contracts the iris of the eye and dilates the pupil.
disaccharides "Simple carbohydrates including sucrose (common table sugar)
disorganized behavior "A common characteristic of psychosis where problems may be noted in any form of goal-directed behavior
disorganized thinking Thought disorders commonly associated with psychosis that may consist of a loosening of associations so that the speaker jumps from one idea or topic to another unrelated one in an illogical way.
displacement "The displacement from protein-binding sites of the first drug by a second drug
disposal of unused medicines The concept of how unused drugs are disposed of and their impact on the environment. Guidelines were issued in February 2007 by the FDA and the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy on the proper disposal of prescription and OTC drugs to mini
distribution "The ways in which drugs are transported by the circulating body fluids to the sites of action (receptors)
dopamine An intermediate product in the synthesis of norepinephrine; it acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
dopaminergic receptors Receptors that are stimulated by dopamine. Stimulation of the dopaminergic receptors improves the symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease. Dopamine also increases urine output because of stimulation of specific receptors in the kidneys that results i
dorsogluteal area An injection site identified by drawing an imaginary line from the posterior superior iliac spine to the greater trochanter of the femur. The injection should be given at any point between the imaginary straight line and below the curve of the iliac crest
dressings Material used to treat and cover wounds.
drip chamber "Part of an infusion set just below the insertion spike that contains a calibrated dropper that permits a predictable amount of fluid to be delivered. The two types are macrodrip (larger drop) and microdrip (small drop) chambers
drop factor (DF) The number of drops per milliliter in intravenous drug infusion.
drugs Chemical substances that have an effect on living organisms.
drug accumulation The effect that occurs when the previously administered drug dose has not yet been metabolized or excreted when the next dose is administered.
drug blood level An assay to determine the amount of drug present in a blood sample.
drug dependence "A person's inability to control the ingestion of drugs. The dependence may be physical
Drug Facts and Comparisons Comprehensive compendium of drug information published by Facts and Comparisons.
drug history "A list of all prescription and over-the-counter medications
drug interaction When the action of one drug is altered by the action of another.
Drug Interaction Facts The most comprehensive book available on the subject of drug interactions; published by Facts and Comparisons.
drug metabolism The process by which the body inactivates medicines.
drug monographs "A statement that specifies the kinds and amounts of ingredients a drug or class of drugs may contain
drug tolerance When a patient requires increases in dosing to achieve the same therapeutic effect.
dry powder inhaler (DPI) A device used to administer small amounts of powdered medicine by inhalation.
duration of action The length of time a drug has a pharmacologic effect on an individual.
dysfunctional labor A prolonged latent phase of cervical dilation or arrest of descent of the fetus through the birth canal.
dyskinesia Impaired ability to perform voluntary movements.
dyskinesia identification system: condensed user scale (DISCUS) A scale that rates the presence and severity of abnormal involuntary muscle movements and considers other variables when formulating a conclusion. The DISCUS evaluation specifically describes the type of tardive dyskinesia and allows diagnoses to change o
dyslipidemia Abnormality with one or more of the blood fats (lipids).
dysmenorrhea Painful menstruation.
dysrhythmia An abnormal cardiac rhythm; also known as arrhythmia.
dysthymia "A unipolar mood disorder manifested by chronic
dystonia "Spasmodic movements (prolonged tonic contractions) of muscle groups such as tongue protrusion
efferent nerves "Nerves that the CNS uses to process signals and control body response
electrical system The conduction system of the body; the anatomic structure that controls the sequence of muscle contractions.
electrolytes "Solutes that dissolve in water and dissociate into ion particles. These ions give water the ability to conduct electricity. The solutes most commonly dissolved in body fluids are sodium
electrolyte imbalance Disturbance of the equilibrium between electrolytes in the body.
elixirs Clear liquids made up of drugs dissolved in alcohol and water. Elixirs are primarily used when the drug will not dissolve in water alone.
embolus "Blood clot brought by the blood flow from a distant vessel and forced into a smaller one
emesis Vomiting.
emphysema "An overdistention of the alveolar airspaces in the lungs resulting in alveolar tissue destruction with trapping of air. A few symptoms are exertional dyspnea
emulsions Dispersions of small droplets of water in oil or oil in water; used to mask bitter tastes or provide better solubility to certain drugs.
enteral "Administering a drug directly into the gastrointestinal tract by oral
enteral nutrition "Food administered by the enteral route (e.g.
epilepsy Nervous system disease with convulsive features.
equipotent doses Medication doses that have the same therapeutic potential.
erythema "Morbid redness of the skin caused by congestion of the capillaries
essential fatty acids (EFAs) Fatty acids that are not produced by the body and must be obtained from dietary sources. The most prominent EFAs are omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) A nutrient intake value estimated to meet the requirement of half of the healthy individuals in a group.
Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) "The average dietary energy intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a health adult of a defined age
estrogen "Generic term for many compounds having estrogenic activity; producing effects similar to estrin
ethnocentrism "The assumption that one's culture provides the right way
ethnography Research technique used to study adherence of patients to their health care regimen.
euphoria Physical comfort; well-being; absence of pain or distress.
European Pharmacopoeia International authoritative publication on drugs that is recognized by the Food and Drugs Act.
evidence-based medicine The application of data from scientific research to make clinical decisions about the care of individual patients.
evidence-based practice A method of improving patient outcomes by implementing best practices that have evolved from scientific studies.
excretion "Elimination of drug metabolites and
expected outcome statements Statements documenting the effectiveness of patient care delivered.
expectorant Medication used to increase secretion and aid in expelling mucus from the respiratory tract or to modify such secretions.
extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) "Symptoms of side effects of antipsychotic agents that consist of four categories: dystonic reactions
extravasation "Leakage of an irritant chemical (e.g.
extrinsic clotting pathway "Mechanism that produces fibrin following tissue injury
Fahrenheit A scale for the measurement of temperature in which the boiling point of water is 212° and the freezing point of water is 32°.
fats "Also known as lipids. Lipids serve as the body's major form of stored energy and are key components of membranes
"Federal Food Drug
fiber A by-product from the metabolism of some complex carbohydrates; a macronutrient.
floor or ward stock system Medication delivery system in which all but the most dangerous or rarely used medications are stocked at the nursing station in stock containers.
flow sheets Condensed form for recording information for quick comparison of patient data.
focused assessment The process of collecting additional data specific to a patient or family that would validate a suggested problem or nursing diagnosis.
Food and Drug Regulations (Act) (Canada) "Canadian act passed in 1953
Food and Drugs Act (Canada) Canadian act passed in 1927 empowering Health Canada to protect the public from foreseeable risks relating to the manufacture and sale of drugs.
frequency (urinary) The need to void eight or more times per day.
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) An inhibitory neurotransmitter that counterbalances the effect of excitatory neurotransmitters.
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) "More commonly referred to as heartburn
gender-specific medicine A developing science that studies the differences in the normal function of men and women and how persons of each sex perceive and experience disease.
generalized anxiety disorder A psychological/physical condition described as excessive and unrealistic worry about two or more life circumstances for 6 months or more.
generalized seizures "Seizures that affect both hemispheres of the brain
generic name "Before a drug becomes official
genetics "The study of how living organisms inherit the characteristics or traits of their ancestors
genome "The complete package of genetic coding of an organism; the human genome is composed of 23 chromosome pairs
gestational diabetes mellitus A subclass of diabetes mellitus seen in women who show abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy.
gingival hyperplasia "Gum overgrowth associated with hydantoins (e.g.
gingivitis Inflammation of the gums.
glucocorticoids "Adrenocortical steroid hormones that regulate carbohydrates
gluconeogenesis A process in which the body will metabolize body proteins and fats to provide glucose energy to utilize the incoming proteins and fats. This process occurs if there is an inadequate amount of carbohydrates to provide energy to break down the proteins and
goblet cells "Specialized mucous glands that line the respiratory tract and produce a gelatinous mucus that forms a thin layer over the interior surfaces of the trachea
gonads "Sex glands; testes in the male
gram A basic unit of measure for weight in the metric system.
gram-positive microorganisms Bacteria or tissues that retain the stain in Gram's method of staining.
gram-negative microorganisms Bacteria or tissues that lose the stain or become decolorized by alcohol in Gram's method of staining.
grandiose delusions Psychotic symptoms of bipolar disorder pertaining to exaggerated belief or claims of one's importance or identity.
graphic record Record illustrating a patient's vital signs and other information to be used for ongoing assessment of a patient's status.
half-life The amount of time required to eliminate 50% of the drug from the body.
halitosis The term used to describe a very foul mouth odor. It can signify an underlying pathologic condition and can have oral and nonoral sources.
hallucination A sense perception not founded on an objective reality.
Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs: An Interactive Approach to Self-Care Comprehensive text on over-the-counter medications that can be purchased in the U.S.; published by the American Pharmaceutical Association.
Handbook on Injectable Drugs "Comprehensive reference on the topic of compatibility of injectable drugs; published by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists of Bethesda
handoffs "Transitions in the care of a patient
Health On The Net Foundation (HON) "A nonprofit
health orphans Rare diseases that pharmaceutical manufacturers were reluctant to develop products for because they were unable to recover the costs of the research involved.
health promotion nursing diagnosis "A clinical judgment about an individual
health teaching The formalized development of learning objectives that direct patients toward achieving goals based on their needs.
heart failure "Failure of the heart to work as a pump; characteristic symptoms include fluid in the lungs
heartburn Common name for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
Helicobacter pylori A bacterium that infects the mucosal wall and is now thought to be associated with as many as 99% of duodenal and 70% of gastric ulcers.
herbal medicines "Natural substances derived from botanical or plant origin; also called botanicals
high-alert medications "Medications that have been identified to pose significant risk in the acute clinical setting
histamine "Substance released as part of an allergic reaction
history and physical examination form Form used by the health care provider to record findings from the patient interview and physical examination.
hives "Raised
household measurement System of approximate measurement commonly used in community and home settings in the U.S.
hydrochloric acid "Secreted by parietal cells
hydrolysis The chemical alteration or decomposition of a compound with water.
hypercapnia Excess of carbon dioxide in the blood.
hyperemesis gravidarum "A condition in which starvation
hyperglycemia Excess of sugar in the blood.
hyperlipidemia Abnormally high level of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood.
hypertension "High blood pressure: a disease characterized by an elevation of the systolic blood pressure
hyperthyroidism Abnormal condition caused by overactivity of the thyroid gland.
hypertonic "Excessive tone
hyperuricemia Excess of uric acid in the blood.
hypnotic Any agent that will produce sleep.
hypoglycemia Deficiency of sugar in the blood.
hypoprothrombinemia Deficiency of prothrombin (coagulation factor II) in the blood. Also called factor II deficiency.
hypothyroidism Underactivity of the thyroid gland.
hypotonic "Lower tension; normal blood serum osmolality is 295 to 310 milliosmoles/liter (mOsm/L). Since intravenous solutions also contain dissolved particles
idiopathic pain "Nonspecific pain of unknown origin
idiosyncratic reaction An adverse drug reaction resulting from a genetic polymorphism.
illegal drugs Sometimes referred to as recreational drugs. Drugs or chemical substances used for nontherapeutic purposes.
illicit substance "Any chemical or mixture of chemicals that alters biologic function and is not required for the maintenance of health. ""Illicit substances"" applies primarily to illegal substances."
immunomodulators Agents that change the way the body responds to cancer cells or strengthens the body's defense mechanisms against cancer.
impaired fasting glucose (IFG) Referring to persons who maintain a normal blood glucose level but develop hyperglycemia when challenged with an oral glucose tolerance test. Also known as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).
impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) Referring to people who maintain a normal blood glucose level but develop hyperglycemia when challenged with an oral glucose tolerance test. It is thought that these patients are at higher risk for developing type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiov
impairment "In substance abuse
implantable infusion ports "Central IV access device used when long-term therapy is required and intermittent accessing of the central vein is required for IV fluids
implantable venous infusion ports Ports that are surgically placed under the skin and into central veins for long-term therapy.
incompatibility "A drug interaction that occurs when the first drug is chemically incompatible with the second drug
incontinence Inability to control urine from passing from the bladder.
independent actions Nursing actions not prescribed by a health care provider that a nurse can provide by virtue of education and licensure attained.
individual prescription order system Medication delivery system in which medications are dispensed from the pharmacy upon receipt of a prescription or drug order for an individual patient.
infiltration Leakage of an intravenous solution into the tissue surrounding the vein.
infiltration scale A scale used to measure signs and symptoms of infiltration.
Infusion Nurses Society A professional organization that publishes the Infusion Nursing Standards of Practice.
inotropic agents "Drugs that stimulate the heart to increase the force of contractions
insomnia Inability to fall asleep or stay asleep.
insulin pen A prefilled insulin-containing syringe that resembles a pen when capped.
insulin resistance syndrome Another term for metabolic syndrome.
insulin syringe A syringe with a scale specifically calibrated for the measurement of insulin.
intensive therapy "A comprehensive program of diabetes care that includes self-monitoring of blood glucose four or more times daily
interdependent actions Nursing actions the nurse implements cooperatively with other members of the health care team for restoring or maintaining the patient's health.
interference "The drug interaction that occurs when the first drug inhibits the metabolism or excretion of the second drug
intermittent claudication Obstruction of blood flow through the arteries resulting in ischemia to the tissues supplied by those arteries.
intestinal transit "Passing through the intestines; usually referring to rate of transit—a rapid rate might cause diarrhea
in-the-needle catheters "Venous access devices that use a large-bore needle for venipuncture. The catheter is threaded through the needle into the vein and the needle is removed
intoxication "The ingestion of a toxic substance (e.g.
intradermal Within the dermis layer of the skin.
intramuscular Into or within the muscle.
intraocular pressure The internal pressure of aqueous humor of the eye.
intravascular compartment "One of the three compartments among which the water is distributed in the body
intravenous Into or within the vein.
intravenous (IV) solutions "Solutions consisting of water (the solvent) containing one or more types of dissolved particles (solutes). The solutes most commonly dissolved in intravenous solutions are sodium chloride
intrinsic clotting pathway "Sequence of reactions leading to fibrin formation
iodine-131 A radioactive isotope of iodine used for treating hyperthyroidism in certain patients.
iris "Circular pigmented membrane behind the cornea of the eye
ischemic heart disease A disease that develops when the supply of oxygen needed by heart cells is inadequate.
isotonic "Having a uniform tension; isotonic solutions are those that have the same osmotic pressure as normal blood. Normal blood serum osmolality is 295 to 310 milliosmoles/liter (mOsm/L). Since intravenous solutions also contain dissolved particles
IV administration sets The apparatus that connects a large volume parenteral solution with the intravenous access device in the patient's vein.
Kardex "A large index-type card usually kept in a flip-file or a separate holder; it contains pertinent information such as the patient's name
kilocalories (kcal) Unit of measure for energy. Daily caloric needs range from 20 to 35 kcal/kg/day.
kilogram Unit of weight equal to 1000 g or 2.2 lb avoirdupois.
kwashiorkor "A protein deficiency that develops when the patient receives adequate fats and carbohydrates in the diet
labile mood A symptoms of acute mania that often includes rapid shifts toward anger and irritability.
laboratory tests record Section of a patient's chart that lists all laboratory test results.
lacrimal canaliculi Tear channels or canals of the eye.
laxative Drug having the property of overcoming constipation or causing diarrhea.
lens A transparent gelatinous capsule situated behind the iris and pupil of the eye and having the function of giving the image on the retina a sharp focus and of converging or scattering the rays of light.
leukorrhea "An excessive
levodopa An antiparkinsonian drug.
lipids "Any one of a group of substances that include the fats and the esters having corresponding properties. The American usage of the term includes fatty acids and soaps
lipoprotein "Proteins that act as carriers for lipids and triglycerides in the blood. Lipoproteins are subdivided into four categories based on composition: very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs)
liter A basic unit of measure for volume in the metric system.
livedo reticularis Skin mottling. A dermatologic condition occasionally observed with amantadine therapy.
lochia The vaginal discharge that occurs during the first week or two after childbirth.
long-term care unit dose system Medication delivery cart designed with individual drawers to hold one patient's medication containers for 1 week.
loop of Henle "A U-shaped turn in the medullary portion of a renal tubule
loosening of associations "Thought disorder in which the person jumps from one idea or topic to another unrelated one in an illogic
lotions Usually aqueous (water-based) preparations that contain suspended materials. Commonly used as soothing agents to protect the skin and relieve rashes and itching.
lozenges Flat disks containing a medicinal agent in a suitably flavored base.
macrodrip An IV administration set chamber that delivers large drips of medication.
macronutrients "Fats
macrovascular complications Complications associated with atherosclerosis of middle to large arteries such as those in the heart and brain.
mania "Phase of bipolar disorder marked by elation
marasmus The most common form of malnutrition in hospitalized patients; it results from a lack of both total energy calories and protein.
Martindale—The Complete Drug Reference Comprehensive text for information on drugs in current use throughout the world; published by the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.
mean arterial pressure (MAP) The average pressure throughout each cycle of the heartbeat; significant because it is the pressure that actually pushes the blood through the circulatory system to perfuse the tissue of organs.
measurable goal statements Established and written short- and long-term patient goals to promote the therapeutic regimen and course of treatment.
medical diagnosis A statement of the patient's alterations in structure and function that results in an identification of a disease or disorder that is impairing normal physiologic function.
medication administration record (MAR) Section of the patient's chart listing all medications to be administered.
medication errors "The failure of a planned action to be completed as intended or the use of a wrong plan to achieve a goal. Medication errors include prescribing errors
medication profile Section of the patient's chart listing all medications to be administered.
medication reconciliation "The process of comparing a patient's current medication orders with all the medications that the patient is actually taking in order to avoid errors such as omissions
medication safety Freedom from accidental injury from medications.
medicine cup "Glass or plastic container that has three scales (apothecary
medicine dropper "Device used to administer eye drops
medicines Therapeutic drugs used to prevent or treat diseases.
metabolic syndrome "A cluster of risk factors that related directly to excesses in lifestyle; type 2 diabetes mellitus
metabolism Tissue change; the sum of all the physical and chemical process by which a living creature is produced and maintained; the transformation by which energy is made available for the uses of the organism.
metabolites By-products of metabolism; break down products of a chemical reaction; may be physiologically active or inactive.
metastases (metastasis) The moving or spreading of infection or cell growth from one area to another. Most commonly used to refer to cancer cells invading other organs distant from the primary site.
meter A basic unit of measure for length in the metric system.
metered-dose inhaler (MDI) A device used to administer small amounts of aerosolized medicine by inhalation.
metric system "A decimal system of measurement based on the power of 10. The basic units of measure are the gram for weight
microdrip An IV administration set chamber that delivers small drips of medication.
microvascular complications "Complications that arise from destruction of capillaries in eyes
midline catheters "Intravenous access devices for use over 2 to 4 weeks
milligram A metric unit of weight equal to one thousandth of a gram.
milliliter scale A milliliter (mL) is a measure of volume on a syringe; the milliliter scale represents the units by which medications are routinely ordered.
mineralocorticoid Fludrocortisone and aldosterone; maintain fluid and electrolyte balance and are used to treat adrenal insufficiency caused by hypopituitarism or Addison's disease.
minerals "Inorganic chemicals found in nature. Minerals are essential to life serving as components of enzymes
minim scale "A syringe is calibrated in minims and milliliters
miosis Excessive contraction of the pupil of the eye.
mixed kwashiorkor-marasmus A type of malnutrition that results from inadequate protein building combined with a wasting of fat stores and skeletal muscle.
Mix-O-Vials Glass containers with two compartments: the lower chamber contains the drug (solute) and the upper chamber contains a sterile diluent (solvent).
monosaccharides "Simple carbohydrates that include glucose
mood "A sustained
mood disorder Affective disorder present when certain symptoms impair a person's ability to function for a time and characterized by abnormal feelings of depression or euphoria.
motor nervous system A subdivision of the efferent system; it controls skeletal muscle contractions.
mouthwashes "Solution of flavoring
mucolytic agents Drug therapy used to reduce the stickiness and viscosity of pulmonary secretions by acting directly on the mucous plugs to cause dissolution.
mucositis General term used to describe a painful inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth; commonly associated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
multidisciplinary team Health care providers who collaborate to provide valuable clinical expertise and a holistic approach in the health care of individual patients.
multiple sclerosis "A disease characterized by demyelination of portions of the nerves of the central nervous system. There is no involvement of the peripheral nervous system. The patient shows progressive weakness
muscle spasms Sudden alternating contractions and relaxations or sustained contractions of muscle that are usually associated with musculoskeletal trauma or inflammation.
spasticity "A state of hypertonicity
mydriasis Extreme or morbid dilation of the pupil of the eye.
myocardial infarction (MI) Heart attack.
myoclonic seizures "Seizures involving lightning-like repetitive contractions of the voluntary muscles of the face
myxedema "Hypothyroid condition causing an edema of tissues
narcotic control systems Procedures put in place by health care facilities to regulate and monitor the use of controlled substances.
nasogastric tube "A tube inserted into the nostril that passes through the nasopharynx
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database "Gold standard for evidence-based information on herbal medicines and combination products of herbal medicines; published by Therapeutic Research Faculty of Stockton
nausea A sensation of abdominal discomfort that is intermittently accompanied by a desire to vomit; inclination to vomit.
near point The closest point that can be seen clearly through the lens of the eyes.
nebulae "Very small droplets of water or oil
needle gauge The diameter of the hole through the needle.
negative chronotropy Process of slowing the rate of heartbeat; a primary action of digoxin.
nephrotoxicity Toxicity to the kidney.
neuroleptic malignant syndrome "A syndrome that can occur in patients receiving antipsychotic therapy; it is characterized by fever
neuromuscular blocking agents Drugs that act by interrupting transmission of impulses from motor nerves to muscles at the skeletal neuromuscular junction.
neuron A series of segments that make up each nerve of the central and peripheral nervous systems.
neuropathic pain Pain that results from injury to the peripheral or central nervous system; often described as stabbing or burning.
neuropathies Functional disturbances and/or pathologic changes in the peripheral nervous system.
neurotransmitters Chemical substances that transmit nerve impulses.
New Drug Application Application submitted to the FDA formally requesting approval to market a new drug for human use.
nocebo effect "Latin
nociception Pain perception.
nociceptive pain "Pain resulting from a stimulus (e.g.
nociceptors Pain receptors.
nocturia The need to void at night.
nonprescription drugs (Canada) "Medicines available without a prescription but which must be sold by a pharmacist to help ensure that consumers are not self-diagnosing medically serious diseases
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) """Aspirin-like"" drugs chemically unrelated to the salicylates but which are prostaglandin inhibitors and share many of the same therapeutic actions and side effects."
nonvolumetric IV controllers Electronic control devices that monitor only the gravity infusion rate by counting the drops that drip through the chamber.
norepinephrine One of the two major neurotransmitters of the autonomic nervous system.
numerator The number in a fraction that is above the line.
nurse practice act A statute enacted by the state legislature or appropriate officers that delineates the legal scope of the practice of nursing within the geographic boundaries of the jurisdiction.
nurses' notes "Section of the patient's chart where the nurse documents observations and actions taken
nursing actions Actions suggested by the causes of the problems identified in the nursing diagnoses and used to implement plans.
nursing care plan The written or computer-generated document that evolves from planning.
nursing classification systems Systems designed to provide a standardized language for reporting and analysis of nursing care delivery that has been individualized for the patient.
nursing diagnosis A diagnosis that usually refers to the patient's ability to function in activities of daily living in relation to the impairment induced by the medical diagnosis.
nursing history "Data collected about a patient's level of wellness
nursing intervention/ nursing implementation The actual process of performing the established plan of care.
nursing orders Statement describing how specific actions will be implemented for an individual patient.
nursing process The foundation for the clinical practice of nursing.
nystagmus "An involuntary rapid movement of the eyeball
objective data Information gained from observations that the nurse makes using physiologic parameters.
objectives Learning statements that assert the purpose of activities and the expected outcomes.
obsessive-compulsive disorder "An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent obsessions or compulsions that cause significant distress and interfere with normal occupational responsibilities
obstructive airway diseases "Respiratory diseases that narrow air passages
official name The name under which a drug is listed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
ointments Semisolid preparations of medicinal substances in an oily base such as lanolin or petrolatum.
onset of action Time when the concentration of a drug at the site of action is sufficient to start a physiologic (pharmacologic) response.
open-angle glaucoma Primary glaucoma that develops over the years as pathologic changes at the iridocorneal angle prevent the outflow of aqueous humor through the trabecular network to Schlemm's canal and into the veins of the eyes.
ophthalmic Pertaining to the eye.
opiate agonists A group of naturally occurring semisynthetic and synthetic drugs that have the capability to relieve severe pain without the loss of consciousness.
opiate antagonists "Medicine that will counteract the effects (e.g.
opiate partial agonists A class of drugs whose pharmacologic actions depend on whether an opiate agonist has been administered previously and the extent to which physical dependence has developed to that opiate agonist.
opiate receptors A series of receptors that control pain. Stimulation of these receptors by the opiates blocks the pain sensation.
orally disintegrating tablet "A tablet that rapidly dissolves
oral syringe Plastic device used to measure liquid medications accurately.
orthostatic hypotension A drop in blood pressure when a person stands up. May induce dizziness or lightheadedness.
other diagnostic reports "Section of the patient's chart that contains reports of surgery
otic Pertaining to the ear.
ototoxicity Poisonous or deleterious to the organs of hearing and balance (the inner ear).
ovaries "Female sex organs in which ova
over-the-counter (OTC) drugs Drugs that are sold without a prescription in a pharmacy or the health section of department or grocery stores.
over-the-needle catheters Also known as short peripheral venous catheters. The needles are recommended for routine peripheral infusion therapy; are stainless steel and coated with a Teflon-like plastic catheter. After venipuncture the needle is removed and an IV administration set
overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome "The need to urinate with or without urge incontinence
oxygen saturation "Sao2—The ratio
pain experience "An unpleasant sensation that is part of a larger situation that is highly subjective and influenced by behavioral
pain perception Also known as nociception. An individual's awareness of the feeling or sensation of pain.
pain threshold The point at which an individual first acknowledges or interprets a sensation as being painful.
pain tolerance The individual's ability to endure pain.
palliation (palliative) Alleviating medicine; treatment offering comfort or reducing the severity of pain but not curing the cause.
panic disorder "A type of anxiety disorder that begins as a series of acute or unprovoked panic attacks involving an intense
parameters "The therapeutic actions
parenteral (parenterally) "Subcutaneous
parenteral nutrition "Method of delivering nutrition via a route other than the alimentary canal
paresthesia "An abnormal sensation
parietal cells "One of three types of secretory cells lining the stomach that are stimulated by acetylcholine from cholinergic nerve fibers
Parkinson's disease "Disease marked by slowing and weakness of voluntary movement
paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) "Formerly known as paroxysmal atrial tachycardia. A group of common arrhythmias that usually evolve from the sinoatrial (SA) node and are characterized by sudden onset and termination
partial agonists Drugs that attach and elicit a small response but also block other responses.
partial seizures Seizures that can be subdivided into complex and simple symptom types. Partial seizures begin in a localized area in one hemisphere of the brain.
passive diffusion "A dispersal or spreading out requiring no energy (e.g.
patch testing "A method used to identify a patient's sensitivity to contact materials (e.g.
pathogenic Capable of causing morbid symptoms or disease.
patient education record "Documentation of the health teaching provided to the patient
patient goals Established short- and long-term patient goals to promote the therapeutic regimen and course of treatment.
Patient Self-Care: Helping Patients Make Therapeutic Choices Text providing comprehensive information for health professionals and consumers about nonprescription drug products available in Canada (formerly known as Nonprescription Drug Reference for Health Professionals); published every 4 years by the Canadian Ph
peak action "Time at which the drug reaches the highest concentrations on the target receptor sites
penicillinase-resistant penicillins Penicillin antibiotics whose structure has been modified to prevent inactivation by penicillinase
peptic ulcer disease (PUD) "Several stomach disorders that result from an imbalance between acidic stomach contents and the body's normal defense barriers
percutaneous "A method of drug administration that includes inhalation
perfusion Pouring through or into.
peripheral arterial disease "A form of atherosclerosis producing symptoms in the cardiac
peripheral devices Intravenous access devices for short-term use in peripheral veins in the hand or forearm.
peripheral nervous system The motor and sensory nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; contains the efferent and afferent nerves.
peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN) "Nutrients that are administered intravenously
peripheral vascular disease Disorders of the blood vessels of the arms and legs.
peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) "Catheters that are threaded into the superior vena cava or just outside the right atrium by way of the cephalic or basilar veins of the antecubital space
pharmacodynamics The study of interactions between drugs and their receptors and the series of events that result in a pharmacologic response.
pharmacogenetics Effect of a drug action that varies from a predicted drug response because of genetic factors or hereditary influence.
pharmacokinetics "The study of the mathematical relationships among the absorption
pharmacology The study of drugs and their actions on living organisms.
phlebitis Inflammation of a vein.
phobias Any persistent dread or fear.
physical exercise "A key component in health and wellness. It is important to balance diet with physical activity
physician's order form Form used by the physician to order procedures and treatments for a patient.
Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR) "A compendium compiled annually
phytomedicine Herbal medicine.
phytotherapy Herbal medicine.
placebo An inactive substance prescribed as if it were an effective dose of a needed medication.
placebo effect "Latin
plaque "The whitish yellow substance that builds up on teeth and gumlines around the teeth; it is thought to originate from saliva. It is the primary cause of most tooth
platelet inhibitors "Drugs (e.g.
plunger The inner cylindrical portion of a syringe that fits snugly into the barrel.
polymorphisms (polymorphonuclear) Naturally occurring variations in the structures of genes and the products they make for the body.
polypharmacy Drug therapy with several medications; commonly seen in older adults who have more than one disorder requiring drug treatment.
polysaccharides "Group of carbohydrates that contain more than three molecules of simple carbohydrates combined with each other. They comprise dextrins
positive inotropy Process of increasing the force of contraction of the heart; a primary action of digoxin.
postictal state "Resting
postmarketing surveillance Collection of voluntary reports regarding adverse drug events of FDA-approved drugs.
postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) A relatively common complication after surgery.
precipitous labor and delivery "Sudden
preclinical research "Phase of new drug development that begins with discovery
prediabetes The intermediate stage between normal glucose homeostasis and diabetes.
prefilled syringes A disposable cartridge-needle unit that holds a premeasured amount of medication.
pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) "Preeclampsia (elevated blood pressure
primary hypertension An elevated systemic arterial pressure for which no cause can be found.
primary source The patient is the main source of information.
priority setting Prioritizing an individual patient's needs by organizing them in relation to their direct effects on the maintenance of homeostasis.
PRN "Latin for pro re nata
PRN order "Administer if needed. This order allows a nurse to judge when a medication should be administered
progesterone "A hormone thought to be associated mainly with body changes that favor the implantation of the fertilized ovum
progress notes Frequent observations of the patient's health status made by the physician and other health care professionals.
prophylactic antibiotics "Antibiotics given in order to prevent
proprietary name "Drug name followed by the symbol ® indicating that the name is registered and that its use is restricted to the owner of the drug
"propulsive uncontrolled movement"
prostatitis Infection of the prostate gland.
protein "Any one of a group of nitrogenized compounds
protein binding "Proteins
pseudoparkinsonian symptoms "Tremor
psychogenic vomiting Self-induced vomiting or that which occurs involuntarily in response to situations that the person considers threatening or distasteful.
psychomotor domain "Involves the learning of a new procedure or skill; often referred to as the ""doing domain."""
psychomotor symptoms "Symptoms of depression that include slowed or retarded movements
psychosis Disease or disorder of the mind characterized by disintegration of the personality and its break with reality.
pulmonary edema "Abnormal
pulmonary embolism Blood clot or foreign material that travels through the circulation and finally lodges in a blood vessel in the lungs.
pulse pressure "The difference between systolic and diastolic pressures. Pulse pressure is an important indication of cardiac output and peripheral resistance shown by the width of pulse pressure. A wide pulse pressure is a normal finding if there is bradycardia
pyelonephritis Inflammation of the kidney and its pelvis.
radiation-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV) Nausea and vomiting associated with the use of cancer radiation treatments.
range orders "Policies established by clinical institutions for pain medications ordered on a PRN basis
Raynaud's disease Disease characterized by vasospasm of arteries and arterioles of the fingers and toes leading to changes in skin color and sensation caused by ischemia.
rebound sleep "Compensatory rapid eye movement (REM) sleep that occurs when there is a strong tendency to ""make up"" decreased REM sleep."
receptors Cellular protein that binds to a hormone so that a response can be elicited.
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) A component of the Dietary Reference Intakes that lists the average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all healthy individuals in a group.
rectus femoris The muscle that lies just medial to the vastus lateralis muscle but does not cross the midline of the anterior thigh.
regurgitation The casting up of undigested food; a backward flowing of the blood through the atrioventricular opening resulting from imperfect closure of the mitral valve.
REM sleep "A phase of normal sleep with rapid eye movement. The early episodes of REM sleep only last a few minutes
renewal order Medication order that must be written and signed by the physician before the nurse can continue to administer the medication.
restrictive airway diseases "Those in which lung expansion is limited from loss of elasticity (e.g.
retching Involuntary labored spasmodic contractions of the abdominal and respiratory muscles without the expulsion of gastric contents. Also known as dry heaves.
rhinitis "Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose
rhinitis medicamentosa "Secondary congestion thought to be caused by excessive vasoconstriction of the blood vessels and by direct irritation of the nasal membranes by the overuse of topical decongestants (e.g.
rhinorrhea "Free discharge of a thin
risk/high-risk nursing diagnosis "A clinical judgment that an individual
round A method used in mathematics to convert decimal fractions to whole numbers.
safety devices Devices on safety-designed syringes/needles that avoid needle exposure through shielding or retracting mechanisms.
salicylates The most common analgesics used for the relief of mild to moderate pain.
"saline heparin
SASH guideline "Guideline used when administering drugs by IV push or bolus. Saline flush first; Administer the prescribed drug; Saline flush following the drug; Heparin flush line
schedules Classifications of controlled substances. Schedules are used in the U.S. and Canada.
sclera "The tough
secondary hypertension "Elevated blood pressure associated with another disease
secondary sources "Information sources other than the patient
sedative Quieting or calming type of drug.
seizures Symptoms of an abnormality in the nerve centers of the brain. They are brief periods of abnormal electrical activity in the brain.
seizure threshold The amount of stimulus necessary to produce a convulsive seizure.
septicemia A systemic infection that occurs when pathogens associated with a local infection invade the bloodstream and are carried to other parts of the body.
serious adverse effects Symptoms of drug therapy for which the nurse has a responsibility to monitor the patient and report these symptoms to the health care provider.
sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) Pathogens that are commonly transmitted by sexual contact.
side effects The unintended response produced by drugs when they affect more than one body system simultaneously. Also known as adverse effects.
single order "A drug administered at a certain time
sinusitis Inflammation of a sinus.
somatic pain "Pain that originates from the skin
soufflé cup A small paper or plastic cup that may be used to transport solid medication forms such as a tablet or capsule to the patient to prevent contamination by handling.
speed shock A systemic reaction to a foreign substance given too rapidly into the bloodstream.
sphincter muscle Ring-like muscle within the iris that encircles the pupil and is innervated by the parasympathetic nervous system.
spirometry "Studies that are routinely used to assess the capabilities of the patient's lungs
standards of care Guidelines developed for the practice of nursing.
standing order A medication that is to be given for a specified number of doses. Also may indicate that a drug is to be administered until discontinued at a later date.
stat order "A drug that is used on an emergency basis
status epilepticus A series of rapidly repeated epileptic convulsions with no periods of consciousness. This is a medical emergency requiring prompt treatment.
stroke "The third leading cause of death in the U.S. Also known as cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). Strokes may be mild or may result in hemiplegia
subcutaneous The layer of skin between the dermis and muscle fascia; also known as the hypodermis.
subjective data Information provided by the patient.
substance abuse The periodic purposeful use of a substance that leads to clinically significant impairment.
suicide The intentional taking of one's own life. People with mood disorders have a high incidence of attempting suicide.
summary sheet "Portion of the patient's chart that lists the patient's general information
suspensions "Liquid dose forms that contain solid
synapse "Anatomic relation of one nerve cell to another; the point of contact between processes of two adjacent neurons
syndrome nursing diagnosis Nursing diagnoses that cluster actual or high-risk signs and symptoms that are predictive of certain circumstances/events.
synergistic effect The combined effect of two drugs is greater than the sum of the effect of each drug given alone.
syringe pumps "Developed to hold a prefilled syringe to apply positive pressure to the plunger
syrups "Preparation that contains medicinal agents dissolved in a concentrated solution of sugar
systolic blood pressure The highest arterial pressure at any one time during the cardiac cycle. It is a combination of the ejection of the blood from the ventricles during systole and the blood pushing against the elastic walls of the aorta and arteries. It is also known as the
systolic dysfunction The most common cause of heart failure; it occurs when the heart lacks sufficient force to pump all that blood (decreased cardiac output) with which it is presented to meet the body's oxygenation needs (decreased tissue perfusion).
systolic hypertension "Systolic blood pressure above 140 mm Hg. Considered pathologic; associated with a higher incidence of stroke
tablets "Dried
tandem setup "(also piggyback (IVPB)
tardive dyskinesia A syndrome of persistent and involuntary hyperkinetic abnormal movements. All antipsychotic agents have the potential to produce tardive dyskinesia.
target symptoms Critical monitoring parameters that are used to assess change in clinical status and response to medications.
targeted anticancer agents Anticancer drugs that interfere with cancer cell growth and division in different ways and at various points in cancer development and growth.
tartar "Calcified plaque that forms a foundation for additional plaque to form
teratogen (teratogenic) Agent that produces birth defects.
tertiary sources Information sources such as a literature search.
testosterone The dominant male sex hormone.
Therapeutic Choices Handbook describing major diseases and their treatment; published by the Canadian Pharmacists Association.
therapeutic drug monitoring The measurement of a drug's concentration in biologic fields to correlate the dosage administered and the level of medicine in the body with the pharmacologic response.
therapeutic intent Purpose for which a medicine or a treatment is prescribed by a health care professional.
therapeutic methods "Approaches to therapy or to treating a disease (e.g.
thromboembolic diseases Diseases associated with abnormal clotting within blood vessels.
thrombolytic agents "Agents used to dissolve thromboemboli once formed (e.g.
thrombophlebitis Inflammation of a vein or veins resulting from an infection or clot.
thrombosis Formation or development of a thrombus or clot in a blood vessel and remaining at its point of formation.
thrombus A fibrin blood clot.
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulates the thyroid gland to release its hormones triiodothyronine and thyroxine.
thyrotoxicosis Severe condition resulting from an abnormal increase of thyroid hormone secretion.
thyroxine (T4) A crystalline iodine-containing hormone; its chief function is to increase the rate of cell metabolism.
tinnitus Ringing or singing sound heard in the ears.
tip The portion of a syringe that holds the needle.
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) The highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population.
tolerance A person's need for a higher drug dosage to produce the same effects that a lower dosage once provided.
tonic phase "Phase of an epileptic seizure where the person suddenly develops intense muscular contractions that cause them to fall to the ground
total parenteral nutrition (TPN) Administering all nutrients required to sustain life by infusion into the venous blood system when the patient cannot eat normally.
toxicity A severe adverse effect.
trademark "Brand name
tranquilizers "Antianxiety medications
transcription The practice of transferring a physician's order from the physician's order sheet onto the Kardex or MAR.
transdermal patch "A disk or patch that provides controlled release of a prescribed medication (e.g.
treatment resistant Patients with diagnosed diseases for whom treatment does not work.
treatment responsive Patients with diagnosed diseases form whom treatment is successful.
tremors An involuntary trembling or quivering. Emotional stress and fatigue may increase the frequency of tremors.
triglycerides "Fat compounds that are the principal lipids in the blood
triiodothyronine (T3) One of the thyroid hormones: an organic iodine-containing compound liberated from thyroglobulin by hydrolysis.
tuberculin syringe A 1-mL syringe that was originally designed to administer tuberculin skin tests and now is routinely used to measure small volumes of medication accurately.
tube feeding Supplementation of nutritional needs by way of a feeding tube.
tubule "The minute canals composing the nephron of the kidney and secreting
tunneled central venous catheters Intravenous catheters that are surgically implanted in an outpatient procedure under local anesthesia.
type 1 diabetes mellitus Formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; present in 5% to 10% of the diabetic population. There is no secretion of insulin from the pancreas and patients require administration of exogenous insulin.
type 2 diabetes mellitus Formerly known as non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; represents about 90% of the diabetic population. The pancreas still maintains some ability to produce and secrete insulin.
typical antipsychotic agents (first generation) Drugs that antagonize the neurotransmitter dopamine in the central nervous system.
unbound drug Medicines not bonded to proteins. Usually dissolved in blood and does not require a protein carrier.
unit dose drug distribution system "Use of single-unit packages of drugs
unit dose packaging "A single dose of medication in one package
United States Pharmacopeia (USP): National Formulary (NF) "Text published annually by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention that sets forth required standards of purity for drugs
unscheduled medication orders Separate sheet in a patient's medication administration record that lists PRN medications.
unstable angina "Angina that changes in onset
urethritis Infection of the urethra.
urge incontinence The involuntary leakage of urine accompanied with or immediately preceded by urgency.
urgency A sudden compelling desire to pass urine which is very difficult to ignore; a common symptom associated with overactive bladder syndrome.
urinary antispasmodic agent "Anticholinergic agent that blocks the cholinergic receptors of the detrusor muscle of the bladder
urticaria Hives.
variance Error occurring in patient care or medication administration; a deviation from the norm.
variant angina "Occurs while the patient is at rest
vasospasm Vasoconstriction of blood vessels.
vastus lateralis Muscle located on the anterior lateral thigh away from the nerves and blood vessels.
ventilation The movement of air in and out of the lungs.
ventrogluteal area "An anatomic site often used for intramuscular injection of medicine that is easily accessible when the patient is in a prone
verification "The practice of checking a medication order to make sure the type of drug
vials Glass containers that contain one or more doses of a sterile medication.
visceral pain Pain that originates from the abdominal and thoracic organs.
vitamins A specific set of chemical molecules that regulate human metabolism necessary to maintain health.
volumetric IV controllers Pumps that apply pressure to the administration set tubing to squeeze the solution through the tubing at a specific rate.
vomiting Also known as emesis. The forceful expulsion of gastric contents up the esophagus and out of the mouth.
water "A nutrient essential for life that accounts for 60% to 80% of total body weight and plays a crucial role in transport of nutrients
wellness nursing diagnosis "A clinical judgment about an individual
"winged butterfly
xerostomia Lack of saliva that originates from nonoral causes.
zonular fibers Ligaments around the edge of the lens that connect with the ciliary body. Tension on the zonular fibers helps change the shape of the lens.
Z-track method A technique of intramuscular administration used to prevent staining of the skin by medicine that may seep out of the injection track.
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