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Urologic Disorders

QuestionAnswer
Urinary Tract Infection Bacteria in urethra and often bladder. Symptoms include chills, temp elevation, dysuria, frequency and urgency. Complications include acending infection and urosepsis. Treat with antibiotics
Urethritis inflammation and colonization of urethra, can infect pelvic area and cause infertility. Symptoms include dysuria, swollen lymph nodes in groin, vaginal discharge, sore throat and fever. Treat with antibiotics.
Pyelonephritis Usually an ascending UTI. Symptoms include pyuria, low urine specific gravity. Complications include chronic renal failure. Treat with antibiotics.
Glomerulonephritis Damage to glomeruli. Symptoms include hypertension, smoky frothy urine, flank pain, adventitious lung sounds and generalized edema. Complications include renal failure. Treat with steroids and NSAIDS, sodium and fluid restriction, diuretics.
Nephrotic Syndrome All disorders that result from glomerular damage. Damage to the basement membrane causes loss of blood components. Hypertension, foamy urine. Complications include thrombosis and embolism.
Polycystic Kidney Disease Hereditary disorder. GFR decreases, Elevated blood pressure, high risk for brain aneurysms. Treat with antibiotics, dialysis, renal transplant
Hydronephrosis Swelling of the renal capsule from regurgitant urine. Symptoms: back pain and UTI begin to occur. Treat by removal of obstruction (TURP), stent placement
Renal Calculus Causes include repeated UTI, frequent episodes of dehydration. Symptoms include genital pain, N/V/D. Treat by removing stone, increase fluids
Rhabdomyolysis Results from crush injuries, skeletal muscle fibers are released into bloodstream and accumulate in renal tubules. Complications include renal failure and death. Treat by increase fluids, diaylsis may be needed, bedrest.
Acute Renal Failure Damage to nephrons. 3 stages. Symptoms include hypertension, chane in LOC, fatigue, anemia. Treat with bedrest; restriction of protein, fluid, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus; EPO injections, dialysis
Three D's of Renal Failure diaylsis, donor, death
Oliguric Stage of Acute Renal Failure less than 400ml/24hr output, lasting 2 weeks to several months
Diuretic Phase of Acute Renal Failure normal output of low quality urine lasting up to a month
Recovery Phase of Acute Renal Failure May last up to a year, quality of urine improves but full recovery is not guarnteed
Chronic Renal Failure Gradual destruction of the nephrons and reduction of GFR. Assessment includes hypertension, worsening azotemia, change in LOC, electrolyte imbalances, low urine sodium. Complications include ESRD, infection, infected shunt, arrythmias.
Overactive Bladder caused by excessive parasympathetic impulses to the detrusor muscle of the bladder, teach Kegal exercises to prevent leakage
Renal Artery Stenosis Hypertension occurs when the renal artery becomes narrowed and incapable of transmitting blood to the kidney. The response is activation of renin mechanism to increase vasoconstriction which further increases BP. Treat with angioplasty or ACE inhibitors
Epididymitis infection and inflammation of the tube along the back side of the testes. Scrotum is painful to touch. Give abx, bedrest, scrotal elevation, ice, and oral analgesics
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Enlargement of protate tissue, causing obstruction of urine. Decrease in urinary stream, difficulty starting flow, and dribbling. Dx with PSA. Treat with TURP
Created by: mvharper1