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Is the disease viral, bacterial, fungal, worm or protozoan? Bacterial
What is the genus species name of the causative agent? corynebacterium diptheriae
How is it transmitted? How does a person get the infection? close contact w droplets from human carriers or active infections &occasionally w fomites or contaminated milk; clinical disease stages: (1) local infection by c. diptheriae (2)toxin production &toxemia; upper resp. tract-tonsils, pharynx, larynx, trachea
What are the general signs and symptoms of an infected person? What body systems/organs are involved? cutaneous d-deep, erosive ulcers that are slow to heal; exotoxin diphterotoxin is produced-leads to inflamm. rxn, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, enlarged cervical lymph nodes, severe swelling in neck& fever
Are there any toxins or factors that increase the virulence of the pathogen? non-immunized children 1-10 years old living in crowded, unsanitary situations
How is the agent commonly identified? How is confirmation of agent made? gray membrane, swollen throat; living situations, travel history, & immunologic history (Schick test); stain of alkaline methylene blue reveals pleomorphic granulated cells; Elek test; amplification of DNA sequences
How does each bacterial pathogen stain for gram, endospore, capsule, acid fast? What shape does each bacteria have? gram positive, irregular non-spore forming Bacilli; straight or somewhat curved rod that tapers at end
Which viruses are DNA or RNA viruses? Which are enveloped or non-enveloped? N/a
Are there any special (classic) signs or symptoms that characterize the disease/infection? inflammation of upper respiratory tract
Is there a treatment or cure available? What are the most common antibiotics given? diptheria antitoxin (DAT); antibiotics from penicillin or erthromycin family; bed rest; heart meds; tracheostomy or bronchoscopy to remove pseudomembrane
Is there a vaccine available? DTaP, 4 vaccinations given as part of a mixed w tetanus & pertussis, starts at 6 to 8 weeks, followed by 15 month & school age booster; older kids & adults who are not immune take 2 doses of Td vaccine
How can transmission be prevented? get vaccinated
Created by: 1005641882