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Unit 7:11

Digestive System (Updated)

The bony structure that forms the roof of the mouth is the hard palate
Salivary glands parotid, sublingual, submandibular
Salivary glands produce salivary amylase, which begins the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates
The folds in the mucous membrane lining of the stomach are called rugae
The circular muscle between the stomach and small intestine that keeps food in the stomach is the pyloric sphincter
The enzyme in the stomach that begins the chemical breakdown of fats is lipase
The first section of the large intestine is the cecum
The walls of the small intestine are lined with fingerlike projections called villi
The enzyme from pancreatic juice that acts on sugars is amylase, or amylopsin
The enzymes maltase, lactase, and sucrase present in the intestinal juice act on sugars
The organ behind the stomach that produces enzymes and the hormone insulin is the pancreas
Functions of the large intestine are: absorption of water and remaining nutrients, transportation of waste products and synthesis of vitamins by bacteria
The function of bile is to emulsify fats and make them water soluble
A chronic destruction of liver cells accompanied by the formation of fibrous connective and scar tissue is cirrhosis
The presence of gallstones in the gallbladder is cholelithiasis
The major cause of a peptic or duodenal ulcer is bacteria
Allow a person to taste sweet, salty, sour, and bitter sensations. Taste receptors
Food is converted into a semi-fluid material called chyme located in the stomach
The largest gland in the body. liver
A storage area for indigestibles. The rectum
Occurs when an internal organ pushes through a weakened area or natural opening in a body wall. hernia
Symptoms of an ulcer are hematemesis and melena.
Prevents food from entering the nasopharynx during swallowing uvula
What occurs when the pancreatic enzymes begin to digest the pancreas? Pancreatitis
Chronic, long-term laxative use can cause constipation.
Whar are available to help prevent both hepatitis A and hepatitis B. Vaccines
Rhythmic, wavelike, involuntary movement of muscles that keeps food moving in a forward direction? peristalsis
Sections of the small intestine. duodenum, jejunum, ileum
stores sugar in the form of glycogen, stores iron and vitamins, produces heparin, produces bile, produces fibrinogen and prothrombin, produces cholesterol, detoxifies substances, destroys bacteria functions of the liver.
Produces pancreatic juice with enzymes, and produce insulin functions of the pancreas.
What happens to food while it is in the mouth tasted, broken down physically by the teeth, lubricated and partially digested by saliva,and swallowed
What are pairs of salivary glands? parotid, sublingual and submandibular are salivary glands
The enzyme in the stomach that begins the chemical beak down of fats is lipase
Hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice is responsible for killing bacteria, facilitating the absorption of iron and activating the enzyme pepsin
Intestinal juice produced by the small intestine contains the enzyme lactase
A long, muscular tube that begins at the mouth and ends at the anus. The alimentary canal
In the stomach, food is converted into a semifluid material called chyme
The enzyme steapsin is also called lipase
What is the storage area for indigestibles rectum
When an internal organ pushes through a weakened area or natural opening in a body wall it is called a hernia
What are two symptoms of an ulcer hematemesis and melena
An accumulation of fluid in the abdominal peritoneal cavity is called ascites
Painful dilated or varicose veins of the rectum and/or anus is called hemorrhoids
Transmitted in food or water contaminated by the feces of an infected person Hepatitis A
Transmitted by body fluids including blood, serum, saliva, urine, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk Hepatitis B
Transmitted through contact with blood or body fluids Hepatitis C
Structures that chew and grind food teeth
Carries food from mouth to esophagus pharynx
Muscular organ that contains taste buds tongue
Carries food from pharynx to stomach esophagus
Enlarged section of alimentary canal stomach
Receives bile and pancreatic juice duodenum
Final section of small intestine ileum
Absorbs water and remaining nutrients large intestine
Stores and concentrates bile gallbladder
Glandular organ behind stomach pancreas
Has ascending, transverse, and descending divisions colon
After food is chewed and mixed with saliva, it is called a bolus
Capillaries in villi absorb digested nutrients and carry them to the liver
Pick up digested fats and carry them to the lymphatic system lacteals
A small projection of the cecum is the vermiform appendix
Some B complex vitamins and vitamin K are synthesized (formed) by bacteria in the large intestine
The live produces cholesterol
Two actions of hydrochloric acid in the stomach kills bacteria and helps absorb iron
Two functions of saliva lubricates mouth, moistens food
Major cause is a bacterium, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), that burrows into stomach membranes ulcer
Condition characterized by frequent watery stools diarrhea
Chronic destruction of liver cells accompanied by formation of fibrous connective scar tissue cirrhosis
Inflammation of pouches or sacs that form in the intestine diverticulitis
Severe inflammation of the colon with formation of ulcers and abscesses ulcerative colitis
A condition in which enzymes begin to digest the pancreas pancreatitis
A vaccine to prevent this disease is recommended for all health care workers hepatitis B
Chronic disease that occurs when acid from the stomach flows back up into the esophagus gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Inflammation of the mucous membrane that lines the stomach and intestine; commonly called stomach flu gastroenteritis
Created by: votec