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Cardiac 222-2

Cardiac vocab and rhythms

QuestionAnswer
Atrial Flutter P waves many saw tooth, QRST present, appear same, atrial rhythm reg/ irreg,> one P per QRS, vent rhythm reg/irreg. Atrial rate >vent rate, Atrial rate 250-350. UTM PRI, QRS normal, ↓CO or emboli. TX= Ca channel blocker, b-blocker, Digoxin, anticoagulants
Atrial fibrillation QRST present, appear same. P absent, replaced by small fibrillatory waves. Irreg, chaotic, UTD atrial rate. If could measure>400. Uncontrolled-vent>100. Controlled-vent<100.UTM PRI,QRS normal. Emboli, ↓CO. TX= ca channel block, b-block, Digoxin, anticoagu
Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) P absent, QRS complex wide, bizarre appear. Baseline rhythm irregular-PVC early.Rate measured baseline rhythm.Conduction meas baseline Config: single, isolated,multiple runs. Paired, couplet-2 PVCs in row. Bigeminy, trigeminy-PVC every other beat, every
Angiography diagnostic or therapeutic radiography of the heart and blood vessels using a radiopaque contrast medium. MR angiography, interventional radiology, CT
Angioplasty any endovascular procedure that reopens narrowed blood vessels and restores forward blood flow.
Angiotensin vasopressor produced when renin is released from the kidney.
Arteriosclerosis disease of the arterial vessels marked by thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity in the arterial walls.
Atherosclerosis most common form of arteriosclerosis, marked by cholesterol-lipid-calcium deposits in the walls of arteries that may restrict blood flow.
B-Type Natriuretic Peptide peptide that stimulates the kidneys to excrete salt and water.
Biomarkers signal that serves as an indicator of the state of a living organism. Biochemical, genetic or molecular indicator that can be used to screen diseases, such as cancer.
Cardiac Isoenzyme (CK-MB) enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer or high-energy phosphate between creatinine and phosphocreatinine and cardiac muscle. May be increased to 10-25 times normal level in first 10-14 hours after MI and return to normal in 2-4 days.
Cardiac Output amount of blood discharged from the left or right ventricle per minute. Avg 3.0L per sq m of body surface area.
Cardiogenic shock failure of the heart to pump an adequate supply of blood and oxygen to the body tissues. Most common cause is MI.
Central venous pressure CVP pressure within the superior vena cava. Reflects pressure under which the blood is returned to the right atrium
Coronary artery disease CAD narrowing of the coronary arteries, usually the result of atherosclerosis. Single most common cause of death in industrialized nations.
D-Dimer test byproduct of the degradation of blood clots, specifically of the fibrin within the clot. Presence of an elevated test in the setting of suspected PE or DVT is justification for further testing.
Dysrhythmia abnormal, disordered, or disturbed rhythm.
Electrocardiogram (ECG) record of the electrical activity of the heart.
Emboli mass of undissolved matter present in a blood or lymphatic vessel and brought there by the blood or lymph.
Endarterectomy surgical removal of the lining of an artery. Can be performed on almost any major artery that is diseased or blocked. Carotid, femoral, popliteal
Endocarditis infection or inflammation of the heart valves or the lining of the heart.
Hyperlipidemia increased lipids in the blood.
Implantable Cardiovertor/Defibrillator (ICD) implantable device for detecting and terminating ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation.
Infarct area of tissue in an organ or part that undergoes necrosis following cessation of the blood supply.
Intermittent claudication cramping or pain in the leg muscles brought on by a predictable amount of walking or other exercise and relieved by rest.
Ischemia temporary deficiency of blood flow to an organ or tissue
Lumbar sympathectomy excision of a portion of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. It may include a nerve, plexus, ganglion, or series of ganglia of the sympathetic trunk.
Murmur abnormal sound heard when listening to the heart or neighboring large blood vessels. May be soft, blowing, rumbling, booming, loud, or variable. Can be heard with systole or diastole.
Orthopnea labored breathing while lying flat, improves when standing or sitting up.
Pacemaker influences the rate and rhythm of occurrence. In cardiology, specialized cells or group of cells that automatically generate impulses that spread. SA node. Generally accepted term for artificial cardiac pacemaker
Palpitations sensation of rapid or irregular beating of the heart. Thudding, fluttering, or throbbing
Pericarditis inflammation of the pericardium, marked by chest pain, fever, and audible friction rub.
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) procedure in which catheters are placed within the coronary arteries to study them or open them when they are obstructed.
Positive inotropic effect influencing the force of muscular contractility.
Primary hypertension hypertension that develops without apparent cause.
Pulse pressure difference between systolic and diastolic pressures. Is normally about 40 points different.
Regurgitation backward flowing, as in the backflow of blood through a defective heart valve.
Renin enzyme produced by the kidney that splits angiotensinogen to form angiotensin I, which is then transformed to angiotensin II which stimulates vasoconstriction and secretion of aldasterone
Sinoatrial node (SA node) specialized group of cardiac muscle cells in the wall of the right atrium at the entrance of the superior vena cava. These depolarize spontaneously and rhythmically to initiate normal heartbeats.
Stenosis constriction or narrowing of a passage or orifice.
Stent material or device used to hold tissue in place, to maintain open blood vessels or to provide support for a graft or anastamosis while healing.
Stroke volume amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle at each heartbeat.
Syncope transient (usually sudden) LOC, accompanied by an inability to maintain an upright posture. Most common causes, vasovagal, cardiogenic, orthostatic, neurogenic
Telemetry transmission of data electronically to a distant location.
Thrombosis formation or presence of a blood clot within the vascular system.
Troponin inhibitory protein in muscle fibers.
Venous Stasis stasis of blood by venous congestion.
Ventricular hypertrophy left or right ventricular hypertrophy, an increase in the size of an organ or structure or of the body owing to growth rather than tumor formation.
Atrial Tachycardia QRST present, same appearance, P is lost in preceding T, T may invert due to ischemia. Rhythm regular, rate 150-250, unable to measure PRI-QRS is normal, decreased CO. TX=calcium channel blocker (Cardizem), beta-blocker (metoprolol), Digoxin.
Ventricular tachycardia only wide bizarre QRS complexes, T wave opposite of QRS. Rhythm-regular Rate-150-200 bpm Pt Response-minimal cardiac output, pulseless, unconscious, life threatening. Treatment=assess first, lidocaine, possible code.
Asystole no identifiable waves, straight or nearly, line. Rhythm-none. Conduction-no ventricular activity. Pt response-no cardiac output. Treatment-assess first, immediate CPR, code, epi, atropine, external pacer.
AV blocks first degree (prolonged PR I) PQRST-sinus rhythm. Rhythm-regular. Conduction- PRI >0.20. Cause-medications such as Digoxin, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers. TX-none, assess medications, Digoxin level.
Pacemaker Rhythm QRST Pacer spikes-impulses travel pacer-heart, visible as vert spike ↑or↓isoelectric line. Atrial spike-instead of the P wave spike.Vent spike-within the Q wave.Rhyt-irreg b/c pt rhythm-pacer rhythm comb.Rate-preset by pacer. Pacer fires HR falls ↓pacer s
A.S.H.D. atherosclerotic heart disease.
Aneurysm localized abnormal dilatation of a blood vessel, usually in an artery, due to a congenital defect or weakness in the wall of the vessel.
Angina oppressive pain or pressure in the chest caused by inadequate blood flow and oxygenation of the heart muscle.
Cardiac Catheterization percutaneous intravascular insertion of catheter into cardiac ventricles, coronary arteries, great vessels for diagnosis, assessment of abnormalities, interventional treatment, evaluation of the effects of pathology on heart and great vessels.
Premature ventricular contraction (PVC) or beat contraction of cardiac ventricle prior to normal time, caused by electrical impulse to ventricle arising from site other than SA node. May be a single event or occur several times in a minute, pairs, or strings. Three or more represent V. Tach.
Ventricular fibrillation coarse waves, no discernible complexes, no P, no QRST. Rate-unable to determine. Rhythm-chaotic. PT response-no cardiac output, pulseless, unconscious, life threatening. Treatment-assess first, CPR, defibrillation, epi, lidocaine.
Created by: CJWight