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POL175 Ch.11

. biodiversity The tremendous diversity of plant and animal species making up the earth's (global, regional, and local) ecosystems
Chernobyl A city in Ukraine that was the site of a 1986 meltdown at a Soviet nuclear power plant.
demographic transition The pattern of falling death rates, followed by falling birthrates, that generally accompanies industrialization and economic development
enclosure The splitting of a common area or good into privately owned pieces, giving individual owners an incentive to manage resources responsibly
global warming A slow, long-term rise in the average world temperature caused by the emission of greenhouse gases produced by burning fossil fuels—oil, coal, and natural gas. (p. 390) See also greenhouse gases
greenhouse gases Carbon dioxide and other gases that, when concentrated in the atmosphere, act like the glass in a greenhouse, holding energy in and leading to global warming
high seas The portion of the oceans considered common territory, not under any kind of exclusive state jurisdiction
infant mortality rate The proportion of babies who die within their first year of life
International Whaling Commission An intergovernmental organization (IGO) that sets quotas for hunting certain whale species; states' participation is voluntary
. Kyoto Protocol The main international treaty on global warming, which entered into effect in 2005 and mandates cuts in carbon emissions in 2008-2012. Almost all the world's major countries, except the United States, are participants
Montreal Protocol An agreement on protection of the ozone layer in which states pledged to reduce and then eliminate use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). It is the most successful environmental treaty to date
ozone layer The part of the atmosphere that screens out harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun. Certain chemicals used in industrial economies break the ozone layer down
pronatalist A government policy that encourages or forces childbearing, and outlaws or limits access to contraception
tragedy of the commons A collective goods dilemma that is created when common environmental assets (such as the world's fisheries) are depleted or degraded through the failure of states to cooperate effectively.
UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) A world treaty (1982) governing use of the oceans. The UNCLOS treaty established rules on territorial waters and a 200-mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ). (p. 400) See also territorial waters.
UN Environment Program (LTNEP) A program that monitors environmental conditions and, among other activities, works with the World Meteorological Organization to measure changes in global climate.
Created by: kaelin.steele