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Infants & Children

terminology and definitions related to infants and children

QuestionAnswer
Child between the ages of 12-18. adolescent
"Soft spot" at the front of an infant's skull where the bones are not fused together yet. fontanelle
Flowing oxygen over the face of a small child so it will be inhaled. blow-by oxygen
Child between the ages of 6-12. school aged child
Child between the ages of 1-3. toddler
Feeding tube placed through the abdominal wall directly into the stomach. gastrostomy tube
Child between birth and 1 year. newborn or infant
Child between the ages of 3-6. preschooler
Bacterial infection that produces swelling of the epiglottis and partial airway obstruction. epiglottiitis
Sudden unexplained death during sleep of an apparently healthy baby in its first year of life. SIDS- Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
Complication of a rapidly rising temperature. febrile seizure
Group of viral illnesses that cause inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi. croup
Tube placed through the neck into the trachea to create an open airway. tracheostomy tube
Intravenous line that is placed close to the heart. central line
Drainage device that runs from the brain to the abdomen to relieve excess cerebrospinal fluid. shunt
Appropriate things to do when assessing the toddler: have the child sit on the parent's lap, avoid lying to the patient, explain what you are doing
Until the age of 4, the child's head is PROPORTIONATELY ___ and ___ than the adult's. larger and heavier
A sunken fontanelle indicates dehydration
A bulging fontanelle indicates elevated intracranial pressure
Newborns usually breathe through their nose.
In an infant, hyperextension of the neck may result in airway obstruction
Suctioning an unresponsive child's airway for longer than a few seconds at a time is likely to lead to cardiac arrest
Tongues of infants and children are more likely than an adult's to block the airway because their tongues are proportionately larger
When assessing capillary refill a child younger than 5, peripheral perfusion is satisfactory is color returns in less than: 2 seconds
Signs of partial airway obstruction in an infant or child: stridor, crowing,pink skin, adequate peripheral perfusion
Signs of severe partial or complete airway obstruction in an infant or child: cyanosis, altered mental status, inability to speak
Guidelines to follow when ventilating an infant or child: avoid breathing too hard through pocket face mask, avoid excessive bag pressure and volume, use the proper size mask so it seals
Effects of hypoxia on an infant and child include: slowed heart rate, altered mental status
This ventilation device is contraindicated for use with infants and children. flow-restricted, oxygen powered ventilation device (FROPVD)
Common causes of shock in children include: infection, trauma, blood loss, dehydration
Less common causes of shock in children include: allergic reactions, cardiac events, poisoning
Blood volume in infants and children is approximately this percent of their body weight. 8%
When children are in shock, they may: compensate for a long time, appear better than they actually are, decompensate very rapidly
When a child is bleeding internally, the EMT-B should avoid waiting for signs of decompensated shock before treating for shock
Decreased urine output and absence of tears are signs of ___ in infants and children. shock
When treating a child who is in shock, what position would you put their legs in. elevate the patient's legs
Because children have a large skin surface area in proportion to their body mass, they are susceptible to hypothermia
A viral illness that causes inflammation of the upper airway and bronchi, also a seal bark cough is croup
This portion of pediatric trauma deaths are related to airway mismanagement. 1/3
Causes of fever in children include: infection, pneumonia, upper respiratory infection
How is an infant's skin temperature determined in the pre-hospital setting? with an ungloved hand
Treatments for an infant or child with a high fever include: submerge in cold water, use rubbing alcohol to cool, cover patient with towel soaked in ice water
Severe aspirin poisoning can cause: seizures, coma, shock
Common cause of lead poisoning in children is ingesting or licking chips of lead-based paint
Why would you be concerned if a child has ingested a handful of adult vitamin tablets? vitamins contain iron which is fatal to children
Most meningitis cases occur between the ages of one month and 5 years
In cases of sudden infant death syndrome, the EMT-B should still provide resuscitation and transport
Number one cause of death in infants and children is trauma
Symptoms of a head injury include: altered mental status, respiratory arrest, possible internal injuries if patient is in shock
In children, because these features are immature/less developed there is less protection for underlying organs abdominal muscles and musculoskeletal structures of the chest
When using a PASG on a pediatric patient, which section should not be used? abdominal
Indications of child abuse include: repeated responses to provide care, poorly healed wounds and fractures, indications of past injuries
If you are at a home and suspect child abuse, carefully observe for: angry family members, indications of drug and alcohol use, torn clothing on child
It is important never to do this if you suspect abuse. talk to the child alone and ask questions about abuse
Problems that can occur when treating a child with a tracheostomy include: obstruction, bleeding on/around tube, air leak, infection, dislodged tube
Complications of central venous lines include: infection, bleeding, cracked line, clotting off the line
Rescue breathing for child with signs of puberty/adult. 2 seconds/ 10-12
Rescue breathing for child without signs of puberty. 1 second/12-20
Rescue breathing for infant. 1 second/12-20
Created by: UBEMT