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Social Processes, Groups & Organizations and Crime & Deviance

altruistic suicide the type of suicide that can occur when there is excessive regulation of individuals by social forces
anomic suicide the type of suicide occurring when there are disintegrating forces in the society that make individuals feel lost or alone
Anomie the condition existing when social regulations (norms) in a society break down
Bioterrorism a form of terrorism involving the dispersion of chemical or biological substances intended to cause widespread disease and death
Crime one form of deviance; specifically, behavior that violates criminal laws
Criminology the study of crime from a scientific perspective
Cyberterrorism the use of the computer to commit one or more terrorist acts
Deviance behavior that is recognized as violating expected rules and norms
deviant career the sequence of movements people make through a particular system of deviance
deviant community groups that are organized around particular forms of social deviance
deviant identity the definition a person has of himself or herself as a deviant
differential association theory theory that interprets deviance as behavior one learns through interaction with others
egoistic suicide the type of suicide that occurs when people feel totally detached from society
elite deviance the wrongdoing of wealthy and powerful individuals and organizations
hate crime assaults and other malicious acts (including crimes against property) motivated by various forms of bias, including that based on race, religion, sexual-orientation, ethnic and national origin, or disability
index crimes the FBI's tallying of violent crimes of murder, manslaughter, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault, plus property crimes
labeling theory a theory that interprets the responses of others as most significant in understanding deviant behavior
master status some characteristic of a person that overrides all other features of the person's identity
medicalization of deviance explanations of deviant behavior that interpret deviance as the result of individual pathology or sickness
racial profiling the use of race alone as the criterion for deciding whether to stop and detain someone on suspicion of their having committed a crime
social control the process by which groups and individuals within those groups are brought into conformity with dominant social exceptions
social control agents those who regulate and administer the response to deviance, such as the police, or mental health workers
social control theory theory that explains deviance as the result of the weakening of social bonds
Stigma an attribute that is socially devalued and discredited
structural strain theory a theory that interprets deviance as originating in the tensions that exist in society between cultural goals and the means people have to achieve those goals
Terrorism the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government or population in furtherance of political or social objectives
Groups & Organizations Glossary
Aggregate cluster of people who just happen to be similarly situated at the same time
Social Group set of 2 or more people who interact and in a manner that is defined by some common purpose, a set of norms, and a structure of statuses and roles within the group.
Primary Group small
Secondary group involve a large
Dyad smallest group possible; made of 2 people
Triad group of 3 people
Instrumental leader “task leader”; organizes a group to set & pursue goals;helps the group to define its job and determine the best way to do it
Expressive leader “social emotional leader”; well liked and creates harmony, keeps morals high and minimizes conflicts & achieves solidarity among group members by offering emotional support
Group conformity refers to individual’s compliance with group goals, even if the group’s goals conflict with our individual goals
Group think occurs when group members begin to think similarity and conform to one another’s views
Group Polarization closely related to group think; a group moves towards a stronger position or more extreme course of action than its members individually favor
Risky shift groups making risky decisions due to “safety in numbers”
Reference group group that one compares to when making self-evaluations; social groups that provide the standards in terms of which we evaluate ourselves
Organizations large, impersonal, secondary groups or associations
Formal Organization large scale group having a name, some official purpose/goals, and a structure of statuses and roles and sets of rules to promote these goals
Bureaucracy hierarchical authority structure that operates under explicit rules & procedures; dominant type of formal organization in modern society; rationally designed organizational model whose goal is to perform complex tasks as efficiently as possible
Parkinson’s Law states that in any bureaucratic organization, “work expands to fill the time available for it’s completion
Peter Principle states “in any hierarchy every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence
Iron Law of Oligarchy no matter what organizations preach or how democratic organizations attempt to be ~ in reality, they are run by their leaders and not by ordinary members
Society and Social Interaction Glossary
achieved status a status attained by effort
ascribed status a status determined at birth
collective consciousness the body of beliefs that are common to a community or society and that give people a sense of belonging
cyberspace interaction interaction occurring when two or more persons share a virtual reality experience via communication and interaction with each other
division of labor the systematic interrelation of different tasks that develops in complex societies
ethnomethodology a technique for studying human interaction by deliberately disrupting social norms and observing how individuals attempt to restore normalcy
gemeinschaft German for community, a state characterized by a sense of common feeling among the members of a society, including strong personal ties, sturdy primary group memberships, and a sense of personal loyalty to one another; associated with rural life
gesellschaft German for society, a form of social organization characterized by a high division of labor, less prominence of personal ties, the lack of a sense of community among the members, and the absence of a feeling of belonging; associated with urban life
group a collection of individuals who interact and communicate, share goals and norms, and who have a subjective awareness as "we"
impression management a process by which people control how others perceive them
inner-directedness a condition wherein the individual's behavior is guided by internal principles and morals
macroanalysis analysis of the whole of society, how it is organized and how it changes
master status some characteristic of a person that overrides all other features of the person's identity
mechanical solidarity unity based on similarity, not difference, of roles
microanalysis analysis of the smallest, most immediately visible parts of social life, such as people interacting
organic (contractual) solidarity unity based on role differentiation, not similarity
other-directedness a condition wherein the individual's behavior is guided by the behavior of others
paralinguistic communication meaning in communication that is conveyed by pitch loudness, rhythm, emphasis, and frequency
preindustrial society one that directly uses, modifies, and/or tills the land as a major means of survival
proxemic communication meaning conveyed by the amount of space between interacting individuals
role the expected behavior associated with a given status in society
role conflict two or more roles associated with contradictory expectations
role modeling limitation of the behavior of an admired other
role set all roles occupied by a person at a given time
role strain conflicting expectations within the same role
social institution an established and organized system of social behavior with a recognized purpose
social interaction behavior between two or more people that is given meaning
social organization the order established in social groups
social structure the patterns of social relationships and social institutions that comprise society
society a system of social interaction that includes both culture and social organization
status an established position in a social structure that carries with it a degree of prestige
status inconsistency exists when the different statuses occupied by the individual bring with them significantly different amounts of prestige
status set the complete set of statuses occupied by a person at a given time
tradition-directedness conformity to longstanding and time-honored norms and practices
Socialization and the Life Force Glossary
adult socialization the process of learning new roles and expectations in adult life
age cohort an aggregate group of people born during the same time period
age discrimination different and unequal treatment of people based solely on their age
age prejudice a negative attitude about an age group that is generalized to all people in that group
age stereotype preconceived judgments about what different age groups are like
age stratification the hierarchical ranking of age groups in society
Ageism the institutionalized practice of age prejudice and discrimination
anticipatory socialization the process of learning the expectations associated with a role one expects to enter in the future
cohort (birth cohort) see age cohort
disengagement theory theory predicting that as people age, they gradually withdraw from participation in society and are simultaneously relieved of responsibilities
Ego the part of the self representing reason and common sense
game stage the stage in childhood when children become capable of taking a multitude of roles at the same time
generalized other the abstract composite of social roles and social expectations
Id the part of the personality that includes various impulses and drives, including sexual passions and desires, biological urges, and human instincts
Identity how one defines oneself
imitation stage the stage in childhood when children copy the behavior of those around them
life course the connection between people's personal attributes, the roles they occupy, the life events they experience, and the social and historical context of these events
looking glass self the idea that people's conception of self arises through reflection about their relationship to others
object relations theory a psychoanalytic theory of socialization positing that social relationships children experience early in life determine the development of their personality
Peers those of similar status
play stage the stage in childhood when children begin to take on the roles of significant people in their environment
psychoanalytic theory a theory of socialization positing that the unconscious mind shapes human behavior
Resocialization the process by which existing social roles are radically altered or replaced
rite of passage ceremony or ritual that symbolizes the passage of an individual from one role to another
Role the expected behavior associated with a given status in society
significant others those with whom we have a close affiliation
social control the process by which groups and individuals within those groups are brought into conformity with dominant social exceptions
social learning theory a theory of socialization positing that the formation of identity is a learned response to social stimuli
Socialization the process through which people learn the expectations of society
socialization agents those who pass on social expectations
superego the dimension of the self representing the standards of society
taking the role of the other the process of imagining oneself from the point of another person and judging from the viewpoint of that person
Created by: 241152