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Islam and Other Religious Movements

Al-Ghazzali 1058-1111 Islamic theologian reconciling reason with mysticism
Allah Islamic name for the one God
Almsgiving obligatory charitable giving to the poor (Islam)
Ibn Rushd Averroes 1126-1198 Islamic theologian synthesizing Aristotle with Islam
Bahai modern syncretistic religion, originally from Persia; "All denominations lead to the one God."
Dervish Islamic mystic who attempts to gain ecstasy by dancing (another name for Sufi)
Druses Islamic, apocalyptic, exclusivistic, non-proselytizing sect found largely in Lebanon
Elijah Muhammad 1897-1975 leader of U.S. Black Muslims, Nation of Islam
Infidel derogatory Muslim term for a non-Muslim
Jihad Islamic holy war against infidels; also includes ethics about treatment of innocent in warfare; can refer to an inward struggle
Koran (Qu’ran) Islamic scripture, revelations received by the prophet Muhammad, usually transliterated as Qu'ran
Malcolm X African-American spokesman for Nation of Islam who later challenged its doctrine of racial prejudice
Mecca Islamic city of obligatory pilgrimage; Muslims face Mecca when praying
Mohammed 570-632 C.E. Arab founder of Islam, "the prophet" who recited the Qur’an, preached theistic monotheism
Mosque a building for Islamic worship
Muslim, Moslem an adherent of Islam, "one who submits to God"
Nanak 1469-1539 founder of Sikh religion, he was originally a Hindu in India
Nation of Islam "Black Muslims"; African-American movement with prejudicial views against whites and Jews
Palestine geographical area in which ancient and modern Israel have been established; also, a proposed Arab nation in that region
pilgrimage a journey to attend a shrine; pilgrimage to Mecca is obligatory in Islam
Ramadan month-long Muslim festival involving daytime fasting
Sabaean-Mandean an ancient monotheistic religion of the Middle East; practices baptism
Shia sect of Islam predominant in Iran and Libya; has present-day living prophet (imam)
Sufis Islamic mystics; originated in Persia, some are dancing dervishes, influenced Al Ghazzali
Sunni sect of Islam predominant outside of Iran; based upon consensus agreement on Qu’ran; Muhammad was the last prophet
Adventist a 19th century U.S. movement led by William Miller which declared that 1844 would be the second coming of Christ; influenced Seventh Day Adventists and Jehovah's Witnesses
Amish pacifist Protestant sect committed to living a simple, 19th century life style, found in rural Pennsylvania
Anabaptist original Baptist churches of the European Reformation; associated with peasant rebellions of the 16th century
Anne Lee 18th century founder of Shakers, claimed to be feminine incarnation of Christ
Billy Graham 20th century Protestant Evangelical, effective preacher with simple message; salvation by grace
Brigham Young 19th century Mormon leader; took over after Smith's assassination and led Mormons to Utah
Charles Taze Russell 1852-1916 millenarian preacher, founder of Jehovah's Witnesses
Christian Science a denomination founded by Mary Baker Eddy; emphasizes spiritual healing
Cult a small sect with devoted followers; a pejorative term for a new religious movement denomination (especially one which has doctrines or rituals outside the mainstream, or is abusive of followers)
David Koresh self-proclaimed second Jesus who led the Waco group of Branch Davidians into a 1993 battle with federal agents
Ellen G. White 1826-1915 founder of Seventh Day Adventists
Evangelical modern born-again Christians who emphasize Bible's authority; proselytizing, Fundamentalist Protestants
George Fox 1624-1691 Englishman who founded Quakers (Society of Friends)
Holy Roller derogatory term for 20th century Pentecostals or Charismatic Christians who sway or fall down in ecstasy
Jehovah's Witnesses proselytizing denomination founded by C.T. Russell; set apocalyptic dates, deny the trinity, refuse participation in civil affairs
Jim Jones founder of People's Temple, a cult which committed Mass suicide in Guyana in 1978
John Humphrey Noyes 19th century founder of Oneida Perfectionists; advocated complex marriage (multiple husbands & wives)
Joseph Smith Jr. 1805-1844 founder of Latter Day Saints, "the prophet" who translated Book of Mormon, other revelations
Juche the state sponsored religion of North Korea
Kingdom Hall a building for Jehovah's Witness meetings
L. Ron Hubbard 20th century science fiction writer who founded Scientology, Dianetics
Macumba Brazilian popular religion with African roots
Martin Luther King 1929-1968 Baptist minister, nonviolent civil rights leader of African-Americans
Mormon Also called Latter Day Saints, Christian denomination started in 19th century by Joseph Smith; emphasizes family, temple rituals, no smoking/coffee
Pentecostal 20th century American denomination; emphasizes presence of the Holy Spirit; speaking in tongues
Perfectionists 19th century Oneida community founded by J.H. Noyes; practiced communism and complex marriage
Quaker pacifistic religion founded by G. Fox; no clergy, no sacraments; also known as the Society of Friends
Scientology 20th century denomination founded by L. Ron Hubbard; opponents consider it to be a mere front for the Dianetics Movement and having cultish tendencies
Seventh Day Adventist 19th century Protestant sect founded by Ellen White; apocalyptic, vegetarian, worship on Saturday
Shakers 19th century American sect famous for their rigorous dancing; celibate, communitarian; founded by Ann Lee, now extinct
Sun Myung Moon Korean founder of Unification Church, considered a cult by many
William Miller 19th century apocalyptic preacher, predicted the second coming in 1844; Adventist, Millerite movement
Created by: 241152