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Abraham mythical patriarch of the Hebrews, founder of Judaism; "obey the one God"
Antediluvian before the flood of Noah
Anti-Semitism prejudice against Jews; this has a long history in the actions of the early Church and later western civilization
bar mitzvah Jewish puberty rite; at age thirteen the boy is accepted as an adult in this religion
Cabbala (Kabbala) esoteric Jewish mysticism, arose in Spain in Middle Ages; influenced numerology, searching for a mathematical code in the Torah
circumcision male initiation rite; removal of foreskin
Conservative Judaism accommodates to the modern world, but tries to keep Jewish traditions alive; large in U.S.
covenant contract between people or between God and His people (especially ancient Israel);
Diaspora Rome's forcible dispersion of the Jews from Palestine after 70 C.E.
Elohim a Hebrew name used for God in the Old Testament
Essenes 1st century pietistic, apocalyptic Jewish sect; Dead Sea settlements
Exile period when Jews were carried off to Babylon in 586 B.C.E.
Exodus when Moses led Hebrews out of Egypt
Gentile Jewish and Christian term for people who are not of Jewish origin
Hasidic, Hasidim mysticism of contemporary pietistic orthodox Jews; emphasis on singing
Hebrew the language in which the Old Testament was written; also, the people who left Egypt with Moses
Hillel 1st century rabbi, silver rule, provided guidelines for interpretation and commentary on Torah
Holocaust the Nazi attempt to exterminate the Jews in concentration camps
Israel biblical kingdom founded by ancient Hebrews; modern nation created by U.N. as Jewish homeland (Israelis)
Jehovah Hebrew and Christian name for God
kosher Jewish rules of propriety (especially dietary, e.g., abstinence from pork, rules for meal preparation)
Maccabbees 2nd century B.C.E. Jews fought against Romans
Maimonides 1135-1204 medieval Spanish Jew who synthesized Greek philosophy and Judaism
Messiah expected Jewish savior king; Christians accept Jesus as the Messiah
Moses 1200 B.C.E. prophet who led Hebrews out of Egypt; received Ten Commandments,
Old Testament part of Bible written before Jesus, including the Jewish Torah, and writings of the Hebrew and Israelite prophets
Orthodox Judaism strict form of modern Judaism adhering to teachings of Torah, Fundamentalist
Palestine geographical area in which ancient and modern Israel have been established; also, a proposed Arab nation in that region
Pentateuch Greek term for first five books of Bible
Pharisees 1st century Jewish lay movement emphasizing rigid adherence to Torah traditions;
rabbi member of clergy in modern Judaism; more of a teacher than priest or prophet
Reform Judaism least strict branch of contemporary Judaism, largest in the U.S.
Sadducees a 1st century C.E. Jewish sect representing higher socio-economic classes, wanted stable society and accommodation with Greek culture & Roman law; denied resurrection, angels; suppressed Jesus
synagogue the building for worship in modern Judaism
Talmud Jewish commentary on the Torah, completed about 500 C.E.
Temple building for performance of rituals
Torah Jewish canon; first five books of Old Testament; the Pentateuch
Yahweh a Hebrew name for God in the Torah
Zealots 1st century Jews seeking military rebellion against Rome
Zionism 19th
Created by: 241152