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Infancy, Toddlerhood, and Early Childhood

Reflexes involuntary responses to particular stimuli; infants very 1st motor skills
Sensation a conscious or subconscious awareness of external or internal stimuli
Perception the “interpretation” of meaning of what we have sensed
Binocular vision the ability of using “both” eyes to focus on an object
Intermodal perception the ability to associate information from one sensory modality with information from another.
Cross-modal perception the ability to use info from one sensory modality to imagine something in another.
Motherese “baby talk”; a name given to the restricted sort of language spoken by caregivers to their children to teach the child the basic function and structure of language
Personality consistent ways in which the behavior of one person differs from that of others; basis to define a person’s individuality and interaction within the environment
Temperament consistent, basic dispositions that are an inherent part of a person, which regulate how activity, reactivity, emotionality and sociability are expressed
Zone of proximal development (ZPD) the difference between what a child can do with help and what he or she can do without guidance
Functional play Children make simple repetitive motions with/without toys
Constructive play Children use objects to create things
Dramatic play Children use imaginary situations with prearranged rules to play a game
Egocentrism viewing the world solely from one’s own personal perspective; prevalent in preschoolers
Object permanence awareness that objects exist even though they may not be in view
Authoritarian a parenting style that is strict, relies on punishment, and little nurturance
Permissive a parenting style that makes no demands, flexible guidelines, no punishment, and shows lots of affection
Authoritative a parenting style that listens to child’s requests, willing to compromise, shows affection and nurturing.
Created by: 241152