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Concepts, Research, and Theories of LDP

Continuity continual progression from beginning of life to the end
Discontinuity growth as occurring in identifiable stages each with distinct problems & characteristics
Independent variable variable can be changed “independently” of other factors; “cause”
Dependent variable this variable “depends” on what happens to subjects in the experiment; “effect”
Longitudinal studying the same individuals over a “long” period of time
Cross Sectional comparison of people at various ages
Cross Sequential combination of longitudinal and cross sectional designs; starts with a cross sectional studies of individuals with different ages then after some time, the same individuals are tested again
Correlation a mathematical statistic that indicates whether 2 variables are related to each other
Positive correlation one variable changes in the same direction as another variable changes
Negative correlation when 2 variables are inversely related; when one goes up the other goes down
Causation when change in one variable causes a change in another
Cohort effect changes due to a subject’s time of birth or generation but not actually to “age”
Psychoanalytic Theory interprets human behavior and development in terms of intrinsic drives and motives, many of which are unconscious
Reinforcement a term used in operant conditioning to explain anything that “increases” a behavior
Punishment a term used in operant conditioning to explain anything that “decreases” a behavior
Zone of proximal development (ZPD) range of skills that can be used without assistance versus what can be obtained with help
Created by: 241152