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World Affairs

Institutions of Culture and Theories of Development

What was Jared Diamond's theory? Geography determines the fate of a culture
What did the people of the middle east develop? They lived in one place, and domesticated plants and animals.
Why did farming not take off in New Guinea? They are unable to grow efficiently enough, and the only foods they can grow are not nutritious enough.
Where did domesticated animals come from and what do they provide? They came from the Middle east and they provide meat, milk, fur, horsepower, and fertilizer.
What was Josiah Strong's theory? Anglo-Saxons must take over the world
What were Josiah Strong's reasons? White people were richer, smarter, and more religious than all other people. "God chose them"
What did Josiah Strong write? Our Country
Who wrote The Culture of Nations? David Brooks
What was the theory of The Culture of Nations? Cultural differences explain a society's success.
Accordind to the Culture of Nations, cultural changes must be led by... people who recognize and accept their own culture's problems
What was the theory expressed in Of Property and Poverty? Land titling, and therefore stimulating the economy, is the way out of poverty.
Why would having a property title stimulate the economy so much? If you have a property title, you can use it as colateral for a loan. A loan would help the bank and you could start a business with it. Also, you and your family could all go to work without worrying about protecting your house because you legally own it
Why is it sometimes so hard to get a property title? When a government is corrupt it costs a lot and takes many steps and bribes to get one.
What else does Of Property and Poverty say that countries need to do? countries need a decent legal system, sound economic policies, and competition among banks
What are the 5 institutions of culture? Government, Religion, Economics, Education, and Family
What are the 4 major types of government? Monarchy, dictatorship, republican democracy, failed states
Monarchy is a system in which varying amounts of power are held in the hands of one family, passed down through generations
What are the 2 types of monarchy? constitutional and absolute
constututional monarchy is... a monarch's power is limited by the people. in most cases, they are nothing more than a symbolic figure.
an absolute monarchy is... a monarch has final say in most, if not all, matters. today they exist only in middle east
What is a dictator? a single person who holds all power, cannot be removed from power without violence
Do dictators hold elections? Often, they do. But they make sure that they always win through fraud, threats, etc
What is a republican democracy? a country gets to pick and re-elect their leaders. therefore, the government is expected to do what the people want
What 3 things does a democracy need to work? free media, education, and a respect for the rule of law
a failed state is... a country with no government or one with no control
What is the only form of protection in a failed state? gangs, terrorist groups
What are the 3 major types of religion today? Animism, monotheism, polytheism
What is animism? the beleif that earthly things (nature, ancestors, etc.) contain spiritual energy and communiate through shamans
Where is animism today? africa, china, native americans
What is monotheism? the beleif in one god
the 3 major monotheistic religions are... judaism, christianity, and islam
Where is judaism practiced? US, Europe, Israel
Where is christianity practiced? North and South America, Europe, Africa, Austrailia, Phillipines, East Asia
What are the 4 major types of christianity? catholic, orthodox, cpotic, protestant
Where is Islam todaY? North Afica, South + Central Asia, other parts of Africa, a little in Europe
What are the 2 kinds of Islam? Sunni and Shi'ite
What is polytheism? the beleif in 2 or more gods
What are the 2 major types of polytheistic religions? Hinduism, Buddhism
Where are Hinduism and Buddhism practiced South Asia
Hinduism is... a mix of some religious traditions in India
How was Buddhism founded? Siddhartha Gautama broke away from Hinduism to find his own path to enlightenment
Informal Education is.... people learn skills from family members, and will probablylive the same life their parents did
Formal Education is..... people learn skills from experts in various fields, and have the potential to be smarter than their parents
3 ways to divide countries up economically... amount of government control, economic activity, level of development
What did Adam Smith beleive? he beleived in free market-capitalism, all the government should do was protect 3 things....
What, accordin to Adam Smith, should the government protect? pursuit of self-interest, division of labor, free internatinal trade
What did Karl Marx beleive? workers should rise up and overthrow the other classes,set up a dictatorship, and divide everything equally (communist utopia)
What does the US government mess with economically? tariffs, health and safety rules
What was the conflict between communism and capitalism called? the cold war
Who owns the businesses in American and European free-market style capitalism? private individuals or corporations
What is the difference between American and European capitalism? europeans beleive it's the government's job to provide a comfortable living for everyone, therefore taxes are high, and it's hard to get fired
Emerging capitalism is.... former communist nations moving away from communism (China, Vietnam)
How are former communist nations moving away from communism? by allowing private individuals to make economic choices, welcoming foriegn investments, more job choices
What is black market capitalism? its too hard and expensive to start businesses, so everything happens on the black market (no taxes but no protection of health and safety)
a "nationalized" economy is... the government owns and runs some major industries, and decides how much or how little to share with its citizens
Where are some major nationalized economies? Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, Venezuela, Russia, (oil and natural-rich nations)
Where is communism todaY? Cuba and North Korea
what is foraging? where? basically nomadic hunting and gathering, some Brazil and Papua New Guinea
what is pastoralism? where? nomadic herding, asia
what is subsistence agriculture? where simple farming and ranching to raise just enough food for personal/family survival (most common in world)
what is commercial agriculture? selling/trading surplus crops (allows people to not farm)
what is extraction? mining or drilling for natural resources
what are the three levels of economies? traditional (primary), industrial (secondary), high tech/service/"idea" (tertiary)
industrial economies..... are one level up from traditional economies and buy their natural resources to manufacture goods
tertiary economies... have ideas in their countries, and then build factories overseas to make it at low costs, and the smarter you are, the richer you will be
First World countries included... US and its wealthiest allies
Second World countries included... Soviet union and its wealthiest allies
Third world countries.... are poor and this term is still used today.
What are the Very Developed Countries? high incomes, diversified economies, good health care and education. includes US, UK, Japan, Germany
VDC=T__________ tertiary
What are More Developed Countries? doing well, but also have an underclass of poor people. include Eastern European countries such as Poland and Russia
MDC=S_______ secondary
What are Developing Countries? poor, but starting to do better. low incomes and literacy rates. limited health care. China, India, Brazil, Mexico
DC=S________ secondary
what are underdeveloped countries? poorest of the poor. living on less than $1 per day. Sub-saharan Africa, Haiti
UDC=P________ primary and agricultural
Created by: karamc1192