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ch34 GI notes

ch 34 GI notes

approx stomach capacity = ?mL 1500mL
the inlet of the stomach is called the.. gastoesophageal junction
stomach entrance = stomach outlet = stomach entrance = CARDIA stomach outlet = PYLORUS
where is & what is fxn of ileocecal valve? termination of sm int. ileum and begining of lg int. cecum prevents bacterial reflux into sm. int.
blood from the digestive tract is delivered to the ___? liver
O2 & nutrients are supplied to stomach by the __ and intestines by the __ arteries. O2 & nutrients are supplied to stomach by the GASTRIC and intestines by the MESENTERIC arteries.
The parotid, submaxillary and sublingual salivary glands secrete @ __ L /day? 1.5L/day from salivary glands
what happens without gastric intrinsic factor? vit B12 is not absorbed by the ileum and pernicious anemia results
the pancreas, gallbladder, liver, and sm int. wall secrete what digestive enzymes? amylase, lipase, and bile
why are the pancreatic secretions to the sm int. alkaline? lots of bicarbonate to neutralize entering stomach acids
where is bile formed, stored and its fxn bile formed in liver stored in gallbladder emulsifies fats for easier digestion & absorption
daily amounts of intestinal secretions pancreatic 1L bile 0.5L sm. int. 3L total 4.5L
2 types of intestinal contractions? stimulated by presence of ? segmentation contractions intestinal peristalsis contractions stimulated by chyme
what is the major source of tissue fuel? glucose
carbs are broken down into... disaccharides (sucrose, maltose, galactose) monosaccharides (glucose, fructose)
primary fxn of sm int. absorbtion
what is primary fxn of colon efficient absorption of water and electrolytes
age related GI changes are -difficulty chewing/swallowing -reflux/heartburn -food intolerance/malabsorption -slower motility/constipation -fecal incontinence
what foods cause dyspepsia? -fatty foods -salads/veggies -highly seasoned
excessive gas may be symptom of.. food intolerance or gallbladder disease
hematemesis bloody emesis
tarry black stools= bright/dark red stools= blood streaked stool/paper= upper GI bleeding lower GI bleeding rectal/anal bleeding
9 abdominal sections= epigastric / umbilical / hypogastric R/L hypochondriac R/L lumbar R/L inguinal
assessment includes history-mouth/throat-abdomen-rectal
common area for oral cancer is underside of tongue / frenulum
cranial nerves 12 10 12 = tongue movement 10 = uvula rise when 'ahh'
what conditions may manifest in changes in oral cavity -cancers diabetes immunosuppression medication SE
expected contours of the abdominal wall can be documented as... flat rounded scaphoid (hollowed)
bowel sound frequencies normal hypoactive hyperactive abtive absent normal every 5-20sec hypoactive 1-2/2min hyperactive 5-6/30sec absent 0/5min
borborygmi stomach growling
carcinoembryonic antigen CEA tests indicate presence of cancer, but not what kind
CA 19-9 proteins shed by some tumor cells used as a tumor marker in testing
FOBT Hemoccult II Hematest II SENSA HemoQuant fecal occult blood testing most common stool test (occult = hidden)
what should be avoided for 72 hours prior to FOBT to avoid false positive? what may cause false negative? false pos: red meats, aspirin, NSAID's, turnips, horseradish false neg: vit C supplements/food
pre GI testing patient instructions/nurse teaching... -fast 8-12 hours -fat free meal pm prior (gallbladder) -clear liquid / low residue diets -barium test B4 ultrasounds
enemas contraindicated if... barium contradincted if... no enema if active colon inflammation or bleeding no barium if s/s perferation or obstruction ALLERGIES/BARIUM/CONTRAST/IODINE??
interventions pre/post contrast studies? IV sodium bicarb and ORAL acetylcysteine (Mucomyst) radical scavengers that protect renal from contrast
tagged red cell studies are used for.. determining source of internal bleeding when all other studies are negative
gastric emptying studies (radionuclide testing) used for.. Dx of gastric lotility, diabetic gastroparesis, dumping syndrome. assess gastric emptying
colonic transit studies 4-5 but up to 10 days regular diet and activities x-rays every 24 hours
endoscopic interventions.. anesthetic & sedative, atropine to reduce secretions, glucagon to relax smooth muscles, bed rest til fully alert, NPO til gag reflex, home/followup
tests that find polyps/cancer.. sigmoidoscopy / 5yrs colonoscopy / 10yrs double contrast barium enema/5yrs CT colonography / 5yrs
tests that mainly find cancers FOBT / yearly FIT / yearly Stool DNA test / per Dr order
possible complications of fiberoptic colonoscopy.. cardiac dysrhythmias respiratory depression vasovagal reactions circulatory overload hypotension from overhydration/underhydration
bowel cleansing procedures.. laxatives/2nights & fleets am of.. clear liquid diet and lavage solutions (contraindicated w. inflammation/obstruction)
Created by: rtcdavis