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Nursing 2 Exam 4

QuestionAnswer
What is the function of the Glomerulus? Selective filtration
What is the function of the Proximal tubule? Reabsorption of 80% of electrolytes and water, all glucose and amino acids, HCO3-, and secretion of H+ and creatinine.
What is the function of the Loop of Henle? Reabsorption of Na+ and Cl- in ascending, absorption of water in decending loop, concentration of filtrate.
What is the function of the Distal tubule? Secretion of K+, H+ ammonia, reabsorption of water, HCO3-, regulation of Ca+ & PO4+, Na+ & K+
What is the function of the collecting duct? Reabsorption of water (ADH required)
What gerontologic changes occur in the kidney? Reduction of amount of renal tissue, # of nephrons and renal blood vessels; thickened basement membrane of bowman's capsule & glomeruli; reduced function of loop of henle and tubules
General manifestations indicating urinary system. Fatigue, headaches, blurred vision, elevated blood pressure, anorexia, N/V, chills, itching, excessive thurst, change in body weight, cognitive changes.
apoptosis is cellular death
In normal cellular diffusion, Endoderm affects what? Trachea, Lungs, Epithelium, Mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, GI & GU tract
In normal cellular diffusion, Mesoderm affects what? Muscles, Bone, Connective tissue, & fat
In normal cellular diffusion, Ectoderm affects what? Brain, skin, and glands
Genes that can be affected by mutation are: Protooncogenes and Tumor suppressor genes.
The function of Protooncogenes is? Regulate normal cellular process such as promoting groqwth
What is the function of Tumor suppressor genes? Supress tumor growth.
Benign neoplasm charistics are: Well differentiated, usually encapsulated, Expansive mode of growth, similar to parent cell, Metastasis is absent, and rarely recur
Malignant neoplasm characteristics are: Well differentiated to undifferentiated, able to metastasize, Infiltrate and expansive growth, Frequent recurrence, Moderate to marked vascularity, rarely encapsulated,, Less like parent cell
Carcinomas oriectodermginate from what? Ectoderm, Endoderm
Sarcomas originate from what? Mesoderm
Lymphomas & Leukemias originate from what? Hematopoietic system
Cancers have two categories which are: Grade and Stage
The grades for cancer are: 1, 2, 3, and 4
Grade 1 cancer means: Cells differ slightly from normal cells and are well differentiated.
Grade 2 cancer means: Cells are more abnormal and moderately differentiated.
Grade 3 cancer means: Cells are very abnormal and poorly differenciated.
Grade 4 cancer means: Cells are immature and primitive and undifferentiated. Also the cell of origin is difficult to determine.
The stages of cancer are: 0, 1, 2, 3, & 4
Stage 0 cancer means: Cancer in situ (one specific location)
Stage 1 cancer means: Tumor limited to tissue of origin; localized tumor growth.
Stage 2 cancer means: Limited local spread
Stage 3 cancer means: Extensive local and regional spread
Stage 4 cancer means: Metastasis
What are the 7 warning signs of cancer? 1.Change in bowel or bladder habits 2.A sore that does not heal 3.Unusual bleeding or discharge 4.Thickening or lump 5.Indegestion or difficulty swallowing 6.Obvious changes in a wart or mole 7. Nagging cough or hoarseness
Risk factors for cancer are: 1. Immunosuppression 2. Advancing age 3. genetic predisposition
Common types of cancer are: Lung, prostate, breast, and colorectal
African Americans also have which cancer? Uterine
AsiaReduce intake of animal fat, Avoid nitratesns also have which cancer? Stomach
Dietary modicfication to help minimize the chance of getting cancer: Reduce intake of animal fat, avoid nitrates in prepared foods, decrease intake of red meats, Increase intake of foods high in Vit A & C, bran, broccoli, caulifloweer, brussel sprouts, & cabbage; limit alcohol.
Teletherapy is: External radiation (Cobalt)
Brachytherapy is: Internal radiation (Cesium, radium, gold)
Leukemia common s/s Ulcerations of mouth and throat; Pneumonia, septisemia; Anemia, fatigue, lethargy, bone and joint pain
Leukemia other s/s Altered leukocyte count (15,000 - 500,000/cubic mm); Bleeding gums, ecchymosis, petchiae, retinal hemorrhage; Weakness, pollor, weight loss, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly; Headache, disorientation, convulsions
What are major concerns with an Angiography? Risk for bleeding. Monitor pulse and blood pressure.
What medications do you need to discontinue prior to surgery? & how long prior? Aspirin, Plavix, Piclix. 10 - 14 days
What medication class do you use for a Thyroid Storm? Beta Adrenergic blockers (lol)
For what and when do you administer TPA? For a stroke and within 3 - 4 hours from the onset of the stroke.
What are contraindications of administering TPA. Hx bleeding, stroke, pregnant, head injury in the past 3 months, major surgery within 2 weeks.
What are the primary functions of the brain stem? Respiratory function and swallowing.
What is a side effect of Dylantin & Keppra that the nurse should monitor for? Gingival Hyperplasia.
What medications are given for seizures? Dylantin & Keppra
What is Cushing's triad and what does it indicate? Increase Blood pressure, decreased pulse, and decreased respiration. Indicates IICP
What effect does an increase in temperature by one degree have on the brain? Decreases metabolic demand of the brain by 10%.
What do Statin medications do? Reduce cholesterol.
What is a positive Romberg test? The pt has difficulty maintaining balance with the eyes closed.
How do you want the pt head positioned when they have a stroke? Midline and with the HOB elevated 30 degrees.
What is a Ventriculostomy? A process to monitor ICP. Shows the blood flow to the brain and helps monitor for adequate flow.
What type of medication is IV Mannitol? Osmotic Diuretic
What are the effects of IV Mannitol? Decreases cerebral edema and decreases ICP.
What is the normal pressure of O2 in brain tissue (PbtO2)? 20 - 40
What is the formula for cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)? CPP = (Systolic BP + Diastolic BP + ICP)/3
How do you treat cerebral edema? Administer Lasix, Dextran, or do a flap.
Why would you get an increase in blood pressure with a stroke? It is a protective mechanism to maintain adequate perfusion.
What is the goal for blood pressure with a stroke? < 200 systolically
What do you have to be causious of when lowering the blood pressure with a stroke? You must do it slowly, preventing it from bottoming out. Use beta blocker or Ca channel blocker.
What is the concern of hyperglycemia with a stroke? Glucose draws water towards it and may cause edema.
What are the effects of CNS depression? Urinary retension, Change in BP, Depression, Confusion, drowsiness, lethargy, fatigue, constipation, dry mouth, anorexia, cardiac arrhythmias, loss of libido.
What is the theraputic serum levels of Ethotoin? 15 - 50. Caition with pt with diabetes or severe cardiovascular problems.
What is the theraputic serum levels of Phenytoin? 10 - 20. PO or Parenteral. Increasedtoxicity for pt with hepatic impairment.
What is the preferred medication for a pt that had Heart Failure? ACE Inhibitors (pril)
What is the preferred medication for a pt that had an MI? Beta Adrenergic Blockers (lol)
Created by: brian.belson