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Immunology

Study Guide - Molecule and Fxn

QuestionAnswer
Molecule/Cell Does what?
ABC ATP-Binding Cassette domain on TAP 1, 2, which hydrolyzes ATP for peptide transport in to the ER
Acute phase proteins Angiogenesis in RA. Stimulated by IL-1 and TNF to be released from hepatocytes
ADCC Targeted cell-mediated lysis of ab-tagged cells
Adjuvent Aids in the immunogenicity of a substance that has a desired immune effect
AID (Activation-Induce Cytidine Deaminase) Initiates class switch recombination
Alpha beta-TCR The main TCR type (found on 95% of all T cells)
Alpha-fetoprotein Fetal counterpart and analogous to serum albumin
ANA (AntiNuclear Ab) Screens for autoimmunities (e.g., SLE)
Antigen Stimulates ab production and is presented by MHC to cellular immunity
Artemis Repairs non-homologous end joining double-stranded breaks in DNA during V(D)J Recombination
BCR Transmembrane immunoglobulin of either IgM or IgD class
b-microglobulin A portion of the MHC I molecule located only extracellularly
B1 Cells Ab production; lack memory
B2 Cells Typical ab-producing B cell
B7 Costimulatory molecules found on the surface of activated APC’s that activate naïve T cells
B7-1 (AKA “CD80”) Provides costimulatory interaction with CD28 to provide for partial regulation of negative selection and T cell differentiation and homeostasis
B7-2 (AKA “CD86”) Provides costimulatory interaction with CD28 to provide for partial regulation of negative selection and T cell differentiation and homeostasis
c-FLIP (cellular FLICE-like Required for T cell proliferation and survival
Inhibitory Protein) following TCR stimulation;paradoxically induces Nucleat Factor-kappaB
C Reactive Protein Activates complement
Calcineurin Dephophorylates Transcription Factor of Activated T cells, thereby activating it to perform its function of upregulating IL-2
Calmodulin (“CALcium MODULated protein”) Binds calcium allowing for effective and functional cellular signaling and responses
C1-inhibitor Serine protease inhibitor; Controls classical and lectin complement pathways by binding to C1r and C1s and dissociates them from C1q
C1 (C1qr2s2) Initiates the classical pathway
C1q Functions as part of the C1 complex of the classical pathway; binds Fc of ab that has bound ag
C1r Serine protease that functions as part of the C1 complex of the classical pathway; cleaves C1s to make it an active protease
C1s Serine protease that functions as part of the C1 complex of the classical pathway; cleaves C4 and C2
C2 Larger cleavage product (C2a/b) is a serine protease that serves as the active enzyme of C3 and C5 convertases to cleave C3 and C5
C3 C3b binds to microbial cell surface where it functions as an opsonin; also a component of C3 and C5 converatases
C3aC4aC5a Anaphylatoxins
C3bBb C3 Converatase
C5 C5b initiates assembly of MAC
C6 Component of the MAC; binds to C5b and accepts C7
C7 Component of the MAC; binds to C5b, 6 and inserts into the lipid membranes
C8 Component of the MAC; binds to C5b, 6, 7 andintiates the binding and polymerization of C9
C9 Component of the MAC; binds to C5b, 6, 7, 8 and polymerizes to form membrane pores
C5 convertase (C3bBb) Cleaves C5 to generate C5b – the initiating event in the late steps of complement activation
CCL 1 Monocyte recruitment and endothelial cel migration
CCL 2 Mixed leukocyte recruitment
CCL 3 Mixed leukocyte recruitment
CCL4 T cell, DC, monocyte, NK cell recruitment; also HIV co-receptor
CCL5 Mixed leukocyte recruitment
CCL7 Mixed leukocyte recruitment
CCL8 Mixed leukocyte recruitment
CCL9/CCL10 ?
CCL11 Eosinophil, basophil, and TH2 recruitment
CCL12 Mixed leukocyte recruitment
CCL13 Mixed leukocyte recruitment
CCL14 ?
CCL15 Mixed leukocyte recruitment
CCL16 ?
CCL17 T cell and basophil recruitment
CCL18 Lymphocyte and DC homing
CCL19 T cell and DC migration into parafollicular zones of lymph nodes
CCL20 ?
CCL21 T cell and DC migration into parafollicular zones of lymph nodes
CCL22 T cell and basophil recruitment
CCL23 ?
CCL24 Eosinophil, basophil, and TH2 recruitment
CCL25 Astrocyte migration
CCL26 Eosinophil, basophil, and TH2 recruitment
CCL27 Dermal cell migration
CCL28 Dermal cell migration
CD1 (a, b, and c) Presentation of nonpeptide (lipid and glycolipid) ag to T cells
CD1d Presentation of nonpeptide (lipid and glycolipid) ag to T cells
CD1e Presentation of nonpeptide (lipid and glycolipid) ag to T cells
CD2 Adhesion molecule (binds CD58); T cell activation; CTL and NK cell-mediated lysis
CD3 (g, e or d) Cell surface expression of and signal transduction by the TCR
CD4 Signaling and adhesion coreceptor in class II MHC restricted ag-induced T cell activation (binds to MHC II molecules); HIV receptor
CD5 Binds CD72 on B2 cells
CD8 Signaling and adhesion coreceptor in class I MHC restricted ag-induced T cell activation (binds MHC I molecules); thymocyte development
CD8 suppressor
CD11a (LFA-1) Cell-cell adhesion; binds ICAM-1 (CD54), ICAM-2 (CD102), and ICAM-3 (CD50)
CD11b See “CR3”
CD11c See “CR4”
CD14 Binds complex of LPS and the LPS-binding protein ; required for LPS-induced macrophage activation
CD16a Binds Fc portion of IgG; ADCC and phagocytosis
CD16b Binds Fc portion of IgG;provides synergy with FcgRII in immune complex mediated neutrophil activation
CD18 See “CR3” and “CR4”
CD21 See “CR2”
CD23 Low affinity Fce receptor, induced by IL-4;??regulation of IgE synthesis; ??triggering of monocyte cytokine release
CD25 Binds IL-2; subunit of IL-2R
CD28 T cell receptor for costimulator molecules CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2); stimulatory
CD34 Cell-cell adhesion; binds CD62L (L-selectin)
CD35 See “CR1”
CD40 Binds CD154 (CD40 ligand) ; role in T celldependent B cell activation; macrophage, DC, and endothelial cell activation
CD43 Adhesive and anti-adhesive functions
CD45 Tyrosine phosphatase which plays critical role in regulating T and B cell ag receptor-mediated signalling
CD49d Cell surface receptor that binds to CD106 (VCAM-1) on activated endothelial cells and facilitates leukocyte migration and activation
CD54 Cell-cell adhesion;ICAM-1; ligand for CD11aCD18 (LFA-1) and CD11bCD18 Mac-1); receptor for rhinovirus
CD58 Leukocyte adhesion; binds CD2
CD59 Blocks C9 binding and prevents formation of MAC
CD62L (L-selectin) Cell-to-cell adhsesion; binds CD34 on endothelial cells of the high endothelial venules
CD64 See “Fc gamma R1”
CD72 Binds CD5 on B1 Cells to Allow Cellular Communication and Interaction
CD74 Binds to and directs intracellular sorting of newly synthesized class II MHC molecules
CD80 (B7-1) Costimulator for T cell activation; ligand for CD28 and CD152 (CTLA-4)
CD86 (B7-2) Costimulator for T cell activation; ligand for CD28 and CD152 (CTLA-4)
CD95 See “Fas”
CD95L See “FasL”
CD106 (VCAM-1) Also known as VCAM-1 (“Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule -1); binds to D49d on leukocyte/lymphocyte surface and facilitates homing and migration; only produced after cytokine stimulation
CD152 (CTLA-4) Binds CD80/86 on APC’s and stimulates an inhibitory signal
CD154 Activates B cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells (ligand for CD40)
CDR Short segments that form hypervariable regions on antibodies and TCR that contain most of the sequence differences that allow for ag- specificity
CLIP (Class II-associatedInvariant chain Peptide) Binds to MHC II and keeps peptides from binding until MHC is ready to bind ag
Combinatorial Joining Joining various gene segments of the Ig genome to produce ab diversity
CR1 (CD35)“Complement Receptor 1” Phagocytosis, clearance of immune complexes,promotes dissociation of C3 convertases by acting as cofactor for cleavage of C3b and C4b
CR2 (CD21)“Complement Receptor 2” Coreceptor for B cell activation;trapping of ag ingerminal centers;receptor for EBV
CR3 (CD11b /CD18)“Complement Receptor3” Phagocytosis; leukocyte adhesion to endothelium (via ICAM-1)
CR4 (CD11c /CD 18)“Complement Receptor 4” Phagocytosis; cell adhesion?
CSF Induce the cell lines to differentiate into various leukocytes
CTLA-4 See “CD152”
CXCL1 Neutrophil recruitment
CXCL2 Neutrophil recruitment
CXCL3 Neutrophil recruitment
CXCL4 Platelet aggregation
CXCL5 Neutrophil recruitment
CXCL6 Neutrophil recruitment
CXCL7 Neutrophil recruitment
CXCL8 Neutrophil recruitment
CXCL9 Effector T cell recruitment
CXCL10 Effector T cell recruitment
CXCL11 Effector T cell recruitment
CXCL12 Mixed leukocyte recruitment;HIV coreceptor
CXCL13 B cell migration into follicles
CXCL14 ?
CXCL16 ?
DAF (Decay Accelerating Interacts with C4b2b and C3bBb to displace C2b
Factor) from C4b and Bb from C3b (i.e., dissociation of C3 converatses)
Dendritic cell APC that connects innate and adaptive systemby communicating with lymphocytes
Eosinophils 1 – 6% of leukocytes capable of degranulationassociated with allergy, asthma, and helminth infection
Epitopes The portion of the macromolecular ag that is recognized by the immune system
Factor B Serine protease that is the active enzyme of C3 and C5 convertases
Factor D Plasma serine protease that cleaves Factor B when it is bound to C3b
Factor P (Properdin) Stabilizes C3b converatases (C3bBb) on microbial surfaces
Fas (CD95) Binds FasL and initiates apoptosis.
FasL (APO-1 or APOL) Trimerizes with Fas Receptor and induces apoptosis
Fc Crystallizable portion of the ab molecule; mediates effector functions by binding to cell surface receptors or C1q
Fc-epsilon I receptor High affinity receptor on IgE molecule that mediates molecular events associated with the allergic response and IgE functions
Fc-epsilon II receptor Low affinity receptor on IgE molecule that mediates molecular events associated with the allergic response and IgE functions
Fc-gamma receptor (CD64) Receptor for IgG
FDC (Follicular Dendritic Cell) Express complement receptors , CD40L, and Fc receptors; act as APC’s; provide a major structural/architectural feature of the lymphoid follicles; capable of inducing class switching
Fyn Member of Src family of tyrosine protein kinases that allows for target protein phosphorylation via phsophotransferase
Gamma/delta cell (gd TCR) Account for 5% of T cells; active at mucosal surfaces (epithelial barriers)
G-CSF (Granulocyte – Colony Stimulating Factor) Cytokine that acts on the bone marrow to stimulate and mobilize neutrophils in an effort to replace those consumed in the inflammation reaction
GM-CSF (Granulocyte-Monocyte- Colony Stimulating Factor) Cytokine that acts on the bone marrow to stimulate the production of neutrophils and monocytes. Also a macrophage activating factor stimulating the maturation of Langerhans Cells àDC’s
Gram (+) Results from a high peptidoglycan content
Gram (-) Results from a low peptidoglycan content
Hairpin loop A loop structure that forms from a single-stranded nucleic acid folding back on itself
HLA-B27 Presents self and nonself antigenic peptides to T cells (MHC I molecule)
HLA-B35 Human Leukocyte Antigenic Serotype of MHC I
HLA-B57 Human Leukocyte Antigenic Serotype of MHC I
IFN (Types I and II) Induced at an early stage of viral infection, released into surrounding medium, attach to target cells, and induce transcription of approximately 30 genes which confer an antiviral state on non-infected cells
IFN-alpha Not a normal cellular product, is produced when a WBC is infected by a virus – acts as a cytokine to protect nearby cells; production can also be induced by LPS.
IFN-beta Not a normal cellular product, is produced when a fibroblast is infected by a virus – acts as a cytokine to protect nearby cells; production can also be induced by LPS.
IFN-gamma Produced in response to ag (not only viral ag); acts on macrophages to activate microbicidal functions; acts on B cells to induce class switching; acts on T cells to induce TH1 differentiation; acts on APC’s and various cells to upregulate MHC I and II.
IgA Secretion into the lumens of the GI and respiratory tracts; binds mucus increasing its ability to trap microbes; stimulates alternative complement pathway
IgD Exists as the ag-receptor of naïve B cells (BCR)
IgE Stimulates mast cell degranulation during immediate hypersensitivity reactions; binds eosinophils in response to parasitic infections
IgG Opsonization of ag for phagocytosis by macrophages and neutrophils; ADCC mediation by NK cells; transplacental neonatal immunity; feedback inhibition of B cell activation; activation of the classical complement pathway
IgM Activates the classical complement pathway; serves as the BCR ag-receptor of naïve B cells
Ig-a and b Proteins required for surface expression and signaling functions
Interleukin (IL) Interleukin was originally another name for a cytokine made by a leukocyte that acts on another leukocyte; now used with a numerical suffix (see below) to designate a structurally defined cytokine irregardless of its source or target
Il-1 Principally mediates host inflammatory reactions in innate immunity; inducing upregulation of endothelial cell adhesion molecules; stimulation of chemokine production by endothelial cells and macrophages; stimulation of synthesis of acute phase reactants
IL-1Ra (Interleukin-1 Structural analog to IL-1 that is a natural
Recepto antagonist) inhibitor of IL-1; binds to IL-1 receptors but is biologically inactive
IL-2 Acts with autocrine function to stimulate T cell proliferation; potentiates apoptotic cell death of ag-activated T cells
IL-3 Promotes the expansion of immature bone marrow predators of all known mature blood cell types (AKA: “multilineage – CSF”)
IL-4 Induction of differentiation of TH2 cells from naïve CD4 precursors; stimulation of IgE production by B cells; suppression of IFN-g- dependent macrophage functions
IL-5 Stimulates the growth and differentiation of eosinophils and activates mature eosinophils
IL-6 Functions in both innate and adaptive immunity; stimulates the synthesis of acute- phase proteins by the liver; stimulates of the growth of plasma cells
IL-7 Stimulates the survival and expansion of immature (but lineage committed) lymphocytes
IL-10 Inhibition of activated macrophages;maintenance of homeostasis of innate and cell- mediated immunity
IL-12 Mediates the innate immune response to intracellular microbes as the key inducer of the cell-mediated immune responses to these microbes.
IL-12 continued Activates NK cells; promotes IFN-g production by NK cells and T cells; enhances cytolytic activity of NK cells and CTL’s; promotes the development of TH1 cells.
IL-15 Stimulates the proliferation of NK cells (structurally similar to IL-2)
IL-17 Structurally-related proinflammatory cytokines:some are capable of causing tissue damage in autoimmune disease, and others protect against bacterial infections
IL-18 Produced in response to LPS and other microbial products that functions with IL-12 as an inducer of cell-mediated immunity
Immunoglobulin Synonym for “antibody”
Innate Immune protection that relies on mechanisms that exist before infection, nonspecific and rapid
iNOS (inducible Nitric Cytosolic enzyme not found in resting
Oxide Synthetase) macrophages; responsible for the production/release of NO
Invariant chain Nonpolymorphic protein that binds to newly synthesized MHC II molecules preventing the binding of proteins found in the ER; also assists in the folding and directing of the MHC II molecules to the endosomal compartment
Isotype One of 5 types of antibodies determined by which of the 5 types of heavy chains are present; each isotype has a specialized effector function
JAK/STAT signaling pathway A signaling pathway initiated by cytokine binding to type I and II cytokine receptors;
Junctional Diversity Confers diversity upon an ab or TCR molecule by random addition or removal of nucleotide sequences at junctions between the V, D, and J segments
JAK/STAT signaling pathway continued the pathway sequentially involves activation of receptor associated Janus Kinase (JAK), phosphorylation processes, docking of Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs), and ultimately the transcriptional activation of genes.
Kinase (AKA “phosphotransferase”) Phosphorylates molecules
Large granular lymphocyte Another name for an NK cell based on its morphologic appearance in the blood
Leukotriene Class of arachidonic acid-derived lipid inflammatory mediators produced by the lipoxygenase pathway in many cell types
LFA-1 (Leukocyte Function Associated Antigen 1) (CD11a) See “CD11a”
Lipid A The immune stimulator of the Gram (-) LPS; anchors the LPS to the bacterial cell membrane
LPS (Endotoxin) The lipopolysaccharide of Gram (-) bacteria that is composed of the “o” ag, inner core, and Lipid A and functions to stabilize the bacterial membrane; binds CD14-TLR4-MD2 receptor complex; is an exogenous pyrogen
LMP-2 and LMP-7 Both are encoded by genes in the MHC; upregulated by IFN-g
LT (Lymphotoxin, TNF-b) Cytokine that is homologous to and binds to the same receptors as TNF; like TNF, LT has proinflammatory effects, including neutrophil and endothelial cell activation; critical for lymphoid organ development
M cells Specialized epithelial cells overlying Peyer’s patches and involved in delivering ag to Peyer’s patches
Macrophage Phagocytic cell derived from blood monocytes that are activated by microbial products (e.g., LPS) and by T cell cytokine (e.g., IFN-g). When activated, they phagocytose and kill microbes, secrete proinflammatory cytokines, and act as APC’s
MALT Diffuse lymphoid tissue found throughout different anatomical locations are classified by the region of occupancy (GALT, LALT, VALT, erc.); functions to respond to antigens encountered in those areas as a first line of immunological defense
Mannose Monosaccharide found on the cell surfaces of pathogens, but absent on human cell surfaces; responded to immunologically; can polymerize into the polysaccharide “mannan”
Mannan Binding Lectin Similar to the classical pathway of complement
(or Mannose Binding Lectin) resulting in the formation of complement components; not an antibody dependent pathway
Mast cell Become activated when presented with IgE that has bound antigen (specifically an allergen) at which time degranulation occurs releasing allergic mediators such as histamine, leukotriene, and prostaglandins
MAP Kinase (“Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase”) Respond to stimuli (cytokines, mitogens, etc,) and are upregulated to initiate a serine and threonine specific phosphorylation event (cascade) that ultimately affects transcriptional factors on the nuclear level and hence cell activivites
Mitogen Induces cell division (“MITOsis GENerator”)in cells; lymphocytes are particularly susceptible and responsive to mitogenic effects
MHC-I Loads and presents intracellular proteins
MHC-II Loads and presents endocytosed proteins
NKT cells “Hybrid” of NK cells and CD4 or double (-) T cells; possess cell surface receptors and characteristics of both cell type; thought to play an immune regulatory role, particularly in the control of autoimmune disorders
N-Region Diversity (N nucleotides) Nontemplated nucleotide gene regions at the V(D)J junctions that allow for increased diversity of immunoglobulin and TCR structures
NADPH oxidase Found in the phagosome membrane where it functions to transfer electrons during the respiratory burst across the membrane thereby creating a reactive oxygen free radical (superoxide) that is antimicrobial
NFAT (Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells) Ubiquitous transcription factor that binds DNA (after associating with other proteins) and stimuilates cell-to-cell interactions
NFKB (“Nuclear Factor kappa B”) In immunology, is upregulated by BCR/TCR binding of cognate antigen which then stimulates (continued)
NFKB (“Nuclear Factor kappa B”) continued a cascade of intracellular phosphorylation events that after upregulation allows NFKB to transcriptionally-induce the differentiation, maturation, and proliferation of T cells
NK Cell Cytotoxic lymphocytes that can lyse a wide variety of target cells (those that are virally infected, or tumor cells); can also produce cytokines
Papain Capable of inactivating an immunoglobulin bydigesting it into 3 fragments (2 Fab and 1 Fc)
Pepsin Capable of inactivating an immunoglobulin by digesting the Fab portion from the Fc portion allowing for 2 fragments to be produced
Plasma cell Terminally-differentiated B cell; antibody- producer
Properdin (Factor P) Stabilizes C3b converatases (C3bBb) on microbial surfaces
Proteasome Proteolytically digests tagged proteins
RAG 1 and 2 Regulates the genetic diversity of antibodies and the TCR molecule on the germline level
Rheumatoid Factor A type of autoantibody
Somatic Hypermutation Allows for increased diversity of antigenic immunologic response by introducing single base substitutions
Superantigen Superactivates T cells in a polyclonal and unregulated, nonspecific manner
Superoxide radical Forms when oxygen takes up an electron; formsat the membrane level under the action ofNADPH oxidase; antimicrobial activity
TAP1,2 Translocates short antigenic peptides that have been processed/produced by the proteasome to the ER where they can be loaded onto MHC I molecules for surface presentation to T cells
TCR Analogous to the serum, free-floating antibody molecule, this receptor binds the T cells cognate antigen
TGF-b Initiator of cell signaling pathways via phosphorylation events and ultimately upregulation
TGF-b continued of transcription factors for a target gene; in immunology, involved in regulatory T cell responses and thought to block the activation of phagocyte-derived lymphocytes and monocytes
TH0 A naïve CD4+T cell (i.e., has not met its cognate antigen) that has been appropriately educated, but not activated
TH1 Functional subset of CD4+ helper T cells that secrete a particular set of cytokines (including and specifically IFN-g); their principal function is to stimulate phagocyte-mediated defense against microbes (particularly intracellular microbes)
TH2 Functional subset of CD4+ helper T cells that secrete a particular set of inflammatory cytokines (including and specifically IL-4 and IL-5);
TH2 continued their principal function is to stimulate IgE and eosinophil/mast cell-mediated reactions and to downregulate TH1 responses.
TH3 Functional subset of CD4+ helper T cells that secrete a particular set of cytokines (including and specifically TGF-b and IL-10); function to responds to nonpathogenic foreign antigens
TH17 Functional subset of CD4+ helper T cells that secrete a particular set of inflammatory cytokines (including and specifically IL-17) which are protective against certain bacterial infections and mediates pathogenic responses in autoimmune diseases
TLR (Toll-Like Receptors) Respond to Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) such as LPS and generate signals that lead to the activation of innate immune responses
TNF-a (part 1 of 1) Stimulates all of the following: the recruitment of neutrophils/monocytes to sites of infection and activates them to eradicate microbes;vascular endothelial cells to express new adhesion molecules;
TNF-a (continued part 2 of 3) induces macrophages and endothelial cells to secrete chemokines; apoptosis in target cells.
TNF-a (continued part 3 of 3) Can induce fever and production of acute-phase proteins during severe infections and if produced in large enough amount, can induce intravascular thrombosis and shock.
TNF-b See “Lymphotoxin”
VCAM-1 (Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule – 1) See “CD 106”
VLA-4 (Very Late Antigen) See “CD49d”
Created by: charliebucket