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patho terms 1

Pathology the study of changes in cell/tissue structure related to disease or death
Pathophysiology the study of how disease affects body function
health having the ability to maintain homeostasis when exposed to normal conditions
disease being unable to maintain homeostasis when exposed to normal conditions
etiology the study of the cause of a disease
genetic a disease, condition, or trait that is inherited as a result of a single gene
congenital a disease, condition, or trait that is present at birth
acquired a disease, condition or trait that developed because of being exposed to something during life
idiopathic with out a clearly identified cause
SIGNS evidence of disease that is objective and can be seen, measured and recorded
symptoms evidence of a disease that is subjective and cannot be seen, measured, or recorded
pathogenesis the events that lead to the development of a disease and the signs and symptoms that occur as the disease progresses
Acute a disease that develops and resolves quickly (lasts less than 90 days)
Chronic a disease that develops gradually and lasts 3 months or longer
remission the lessening in severity of the symptoms of a disease
exacerbation an increase in the severity of a disease or any of its signs and symptoms
local a condition that is confined to one area
systemic a condition that affects the entire body
endoscopy a procedure that utilizes a fiber optic camera to view structures inside of the body
radiodensity the ability of an object to stop or slow radiation
x-rays a visual recording of the differences in radio density of an anatomical structure
contrast X-rays x-rays that utilize a contrast media to increase the radiodensity of selected fluids in the body, producing an image if the structures containing the fluid
ultrasound a visual recording of differences in the rate of return and intensity of sound waves reflected off of objects in the body
Electrocardiograms a recording of the electrical activity of the cardiac conduction system
electroencephalogram a recording of the electrical activity in the brain. most often a recording of the cerebral cortex
spirometry any procedure used to measure a persons ability to move air or the capacities of the respiratory system
chemotherepy the use of chemicals to kill cells within the body
pharmacological the use of drugs to treat a disease
palliative and form of treatment the relieves signs and symptoms with out curing a disease. may include use of meds, therapeutic massage, counseling, physical therapy, orthotic devices, etc
prognosis a prediction of the consequences or likely outcome of having a disease
sequela a consequence of a previous disease
complications a morbid process or event occurring during a disease that is not an essential part of the disease, although it may result from it
terminal a disease that is likely to cause death
trauma the transfer of harmful amount of energy. (mechanical, electrical, thermal, radiation)
deficiency lacking in something that is essential
intoxication being exposed to a toxic level of something
hypertrophy to increase in size
atrophy to decrease in size
hyperplasia an increase in the rate of mitosis, therefore increase in cell number
metaplasia a change in cell tissue or tissue structure
dysplasia irregular cell or tissue structure. often considered a potentially cancerous change
neoplasia growth of cells and tissue into new areas, resulting in a tumor. (can be benign or malignant)
inflammation a protective response to injury or infection. causes an increase in blood flow and pain in an affected region, as well as leukocytosis
leukocytosis an increase in the number of WBC to more than 10,000 per mm3. a WBC count of 15,000-25,000 commonly occurs as a result of infection, inflammation or hemorrhage.
exudate the excess fluid that accumulates at the site of inflammation. contains high levels of proteins and neutrophils compared to normal tissue fluid
serous exudate a thin, clear, watery fluid that accumulates at site of inflammation.
purulent exudate a thick, creamy white or yellow fluid that accumulates at the site of inflammation, also called pus
suppurative inflammation a response to injury or infection that leads to the production of pus
regeneration replacing damaged tissue through the process of mitosis, restoring the tissue to its original condition
Repair replacing damaged tissue with scar tissue
adhesion the binding together of two surfaces by scar tissue
keloid scarring the over production of scar tissue that sometimes occurs in the dermis and subcutaneous layer and results in a mass of scar tissue that is often tender or painful
contracture the shortening of scar tissue over time OR the shortening of muscle tissue due to fibrotic changes
stenosis the narrowing of any canal or opening, such as the intestine or BVs or a heart valve
sclerosis the process of hardening. can occur as the result of scar formation or the accumulation of deposits known as plaques
necrosis tissue death
prodromal stage an early stage in the development of a disease or infection that is characterized by a lack of appetite and lack of energy. (time when a patient feels that they are coming down with something)
anaphylaxis a severe, systemic allergic response that is characterized by vasodilation (which causes a severe drop in BP)and bronchoconstriction (resulting in severe difficulty of breathing)
immunosurveillance the immune systems constant search for an antigen
immunotolerance the immune systems ability to recognize and not attack normally occurring tissues with in the body
incubation the development of an infection from the time the infectious organism enters the body until appearance of the first clinical signs and symptoms
acute stage time during an infection when clinical signs and symptoms begin to develop
benign a non malignant neoplasm
malignant a cancerous neoplasm
angiogenesis the development of new blood vessels, especially capillaries
tumor markers proteins produced by tumor cells that can be detected in screening tests of the person's blood
carcinoma a malignancy that originates in epithelial tissues
sarcoma a malignancy that originates in connective tissues
glioma a malignancy that originates within the tissue if the central nervous system
carcinogenesis the process of developing a malignant neoplasm
initiators (of cancer) carcinogens that increase the rate of cancer cell production by activating oncongenes
promoters (of cancer) carcinogens that decrease the body's ability to find and fight cancer cells by damaging tumor suppressing genes
Created by: 688472874