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PT Strength

Physical Therapy Strength

What is isotonic? constant load, variable speed
What are the types of Strength Training? resistance & therapeutic
Physical activity is intended to? increase muscle strength and mass
Strength training is critical for? maintaining, enhancing and regaining strength to improve body function during all phases of recovery
What is resistance exercise? active exercise in which a dynamic or static muscle contraction is resisted by an outside force
What is therapeutic exercise? resistance training applied in a systematic and individualized manner designed to improve, restore, or enhance physical function.
Muscle strength is determined by: neural control, cross-sectional area, muscle fiber arrangement, muscle length, angle of pull & fiber type distribution.
What is neural control? nerves that tell muscles what to do
What are fiber type distribution? Type 1 or Type 2
What are some muscle fiber types? slow twitch & fast twitch
What is slow twitch? Type 1, red oxidative (uses oxygen)
What does slow twitch have? large numerous mitochondra (energy), triglycerides, enzymes for aerobic work
What is slow twitch good for? endurance activities
What is fast twitch? Type II, which glycolytic (lack of oxygen)
What does fast twitch have? high levels of myosin ATPase provides energy for speed of contraction and tension
What does fast twitch do? contracts at a higher speed than type 1 fibers
What are some characteristics of slow twitch: type 1? aerobic work, endurance activities, fatigue resistant, red-vascular (like legs of chicken)
What are some characteristics of fast twitch: type 2? anaerobic work, speed, strength & power, not as much blood flow as type 1, phasic muscles, contract with more force than type 1, high level of myosin - ATPase
What is lack of muscle activity called? Atrophy
Slow twitch has small or larger neurons? smaller
What are the muscle contraction types? concentric & eccentric
What is concentric? approximation of origin & insertion, muscle shortening
What is eccentric? origin & insertion become farther apart, muscle is lengthened
What does eccentric do? more energy efficient, produces greater tension, stimulates both contractile & noncontractile elements
What is isometric? tension produced but no motion, no change in joint angle
What is isotonic? tension produced with joint motion, constant resistance, force, load or tension (bicep curls or bench press)
What is isokentic? tension produced with constant speed regardless of force (machine)
What has greater force lowering? Concentric exercises, isometrics, eccentrics Eccentrics
What is strength? The ability of a muscle to generate force by a single muscle or related muscle group.
What is power? The ability to exert force under a given set of conditions defined by body position
How do you measure strength? manual muscle testing
How do you figure Strength? work = F x D
How do you figure Power? = F x D/Time
What is overload principle? application of a load that exceeds the metabolic capacity of the muscle
What is SAID principle? Specific adaptations to imposed demands
What is progression principle? intensity of the program must become progressively greater to continue making gains
What is reversibility principle? changes are transient unless training induced improvements are regularly used
What is a muscle response to exercise? frequency, duration, intensity
When a muscle response to exercise is does what? exceed normal function, be specific, revert to pre-training state
Hypertrophy after exercise is what? increase in individual muscle fiber size due to increase in synthesis of Actin & Myosin, biomechanical adaptations - increased activity & qty of enzymes for energy production
Type 1 Muscle response is for what type of runner? long distance runner
Type 2 Muscle response is for what type of runner? sprinter
Created by: jklincoln