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Head & Spine Injury

terminology and definitions related to head and spine injuries

QuestionAnswer
Pairs of nerves that enter and exit the spinal cord between the vertebrae, twelve pairs of cranial nerves that travel between the brain and organs without passing through the spinal cord, and all of the body's other motor and sensory nerves. peripheral nervous system
Mild closed head injury without detectable change to the brain. concussion
Body system that is divided into two subsystems and that provides overall controlof thought, sensation, and the voluntary and involuntary motor functions of the body. nervous system
Cheek bone, zygomatic bone. malar
Bony bump on a vertebra that you can feel on a person's back. spinous process
Bones of the spinal column. vertebrae
Movable joint formed between the mandible and the temporal bones; TM joint. temporomandibular joint
Bony structure making up the forehead, top, back, and upper sides of the skull. cranium
Fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Bruised brain caused when a forced blow to the head is great enough to rupture blood vessels. contusion
Brain and the spinal cord. central nervous system
Bones that form part of the sides of the skull and floor of the cranial cavity. temporal bones
Bones that form the upper third (bridge) of the nose. nasal bones
Bony structures (sockets) around the eyes. orbits
Nervous system that consists of nerves that control involuntary functions such as the heartbeat and breathing. autonomic nervous system
Function of the spinal column. to protect the spinal cord
How many vertebrae are in the spine? 33
A bruise behind the ear is called Battle's sign
Discoloration of the soft tissues under both of the eyes is called raccoon's eyes
Signs and symptoms of a skull or brain injury include: blood or fluid flowing from the ears and/or nose, altered mental status, unequal pupils
Is temperature increase an early or late sign of brain or skull injury? late sign
Why is an increase in carbon dioxide significant to the injured brain? it causes brain tissue swelling
A patient with a Glasgow Coma Scale of less than ___ is taken to a trauma center. 8
If an object has penetrated a patient's skull, the EMT-B should... stabilize the object with bulky dressings.
The primary concern for emergency care of a facial fracture or jaw injury is the patient's airway
Two types of vertebrae most frequently injured are: cervical and lumbar
An unconscious trauma patient should be treated as if she has a potential spine injury
The most reliable sign of a spinal cord injury in a conscious patient is paralysis of the extremeties
When assessing a spine injured patient, you notice a reversal of the normal breathing pattern. This is likely a result of damage to nerves that control the rib cage
If a patient is found on his back with his arms extended above his head, it may indicate this type of injury. cervical
If a suspected spine injured person complains of pain when you attempt to place their head in a neutral in-line position, you should steady the head in the position found.
If a stable patient is found in a sitting position on the ground and complains of back pain, the EMT-B should: immobilize with a short spine board or extrication vest
The rapid extrication method is used to: remove a patient from an unsafe scene, when more seriously injured patients must be assessed, to move a high-priority patient.
When you immobilize a child age 6 or younger on a long blackboard, where should you put padding? between the shoulder blades
Correct order for applying a short spine immobilization device, 4 steps. position device behind patient, secure device to patient's torso, evaluate torso fixation and pad behind neck as necessary, secure patient's head to device
Prior to and after immobilization, the EMT-B should assess pulses, motor function, and sensation in all extremities
Created by: UBEMT