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68wm6 p2 Sub Abu

Substance Abuse

What are the 4 elements of addiction? *Excessive use or abuse *Display of psychological disturbance *Decline of social and economic function *Uncontrollable consumption indicating dependence
What are the 4 CAGE questions? *Ought to CUT down on your drinking? *ANNOYED by people criticizing your drinking? *Felt bad or GUILTY about your drinking? *Drink first in the morning EYE OPENER?
Alchohol is involved in what percentage of all MVA and suicide deaths? 38%
What does alchoholism result from? *Environment *Behavior *Genetic predisposition
In a night of drinking, alchohol initially affects what? Initially a stimulating effect occurs because higher areas of the brain are effected
In a night of drinking, following the stimulating effect, alchohol first affects what? First affects frontal cortex (governs self-control)
In a night of drinking, following the frontal cortex, alchohol affects what next? Then the limbic system is affected which impacts hunger, thirst, & sexual desire
Repeated exposure to alchohol affects what inb the brain? The basal ganglia of the brain which results in unbalanced compulsion control
What happens in the early stages of chemical dependance? *Amount and frequency increases to achieve desired effect (tolerance) *Experience unpleasant effects (anxiety, cramping, heart palpitations, changes in libido) 
What happens in the middle stages of chemical dependance? *Moderate impairment *S&S of withdrawal *Negative behaviors *Self-medicates to feel “normal” *Pattern of use *Estrangement *Blackouts
What is the prognosis for middle stage chemical dependence? Prognosis is poor without treatment interventions
What happens in the late stages of chemical dependance? *Level of functioning is severely impaired *Habitual use, cannot achieve “normal” *Worsening medical problems  *Malnutrition *Problem solving/judgment impaired
What are delirium tremors? Acute psychotic reaction to withdrawal of alcohol
How long after last drink will delirium tremors occur? Usually occurs 1-4 days after last alcohol
How long do delirium tremors last? Lasts 2 days to 1 week
What are S/Sx of delirium tremors? *Increased activity to extreme agitation *Disorientation *Fear *Panic *Hallucinations *Elevated temperature
What medication is given to negate the effects of alchohol and opiods? Naltrexone (ReVia), an opiate/ETOH antagonist
What medications are given for acute alchohol detoxification? *Valium *Ativan *Librium *Naltrexone
What medications reduce the withdrawl symptoms of alchohol? *Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) *Naltrexone (ReVia)
Created by: Shanejqb