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Anti-Infective Pharm


Virulence- measure of an organisms pathogenicity. HIGH- microbe produces disease in small amounts 2 CHARACTERISTICS: invasiveness and toxicity
What is a pathogen? Includes: viruses, bacteria, fungi, unicellular (protozoans) and multicellular animals (fleas, mites, worms, etc.)
Invasiveness- pathogens ability to grow extremely fast and cause direct damage to surrounding tissues
Exotoxins- proteins released by bacteria into surrounding tissues. They have the ability to inactivate or kill host cells.
Endotoxins- nonprotein chemicals that are part of the outer layer of the envelope surrounding gram-NEGATIVE bacteria. They release cytokines that cause pain, inflammation, fever, and chills.
gram-POSITIVE -vs- gram-NEGATIVE difference is biochemical and physiological POSITIVE- bacteria that contains a thick peptidoglycan cell wall NEGATIVE- thinner cell walls, resists SULFONAMIDES.
Classify: Anti-Infectives 3x Used against? 4x by susceptible organisms, chemical structure, and mechanisms of action. Used to treat bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections.
Types of Anti-infectives antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiprotozoan, and antihelminthic (destroy parasitic worms)
Antibiotic- refers to natural substance produced by a microorganism that can kill other microorganisms. Now produced synthetically.
Grouping antibiotics:(2 classes) Chemical Pharmacological chemical- chemical structure (therapeutic group) pharmacological- mechanism of action
Pharmacology of anti-infectives- How do they work? Primary goal? selectively target a pathogen's metabolism or life cycle. Goal is to assist in elimination of the pathogen.
Difference between bacteriocidal and bacteriostatic? Bacteriocidal's goal is to KILL the pathogen Bacteriostatic's goal is to SLOW growth of pathogen so body can defend naturally.
name the Chemical Class: inhibition of cell wall synthesis 3x Penicillins Cephalosporins Carbapenems
name the Chemical Class: inhibition of protein synthesis Aminoglycosides Tetracyclines Macrolides Oxazolidinones
name the Chemical Class: Disruption of plasma membrane Azoles Polyene
name the Chemical Class: inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis Flouroquinolones
name the Chemical Class: inhibition of metabolic pathways Sulfonamides
5 methods by which antibacterials exert toxicity: 1. inhibition of cell wall synthesis 2. inhibition of protein synthesis 3. Disruption of plasma membrane 4. inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis 5. inhibition of metabolic pathways
MSRA- Methicillin-Resistant Strphlococcus aureus bacteria that is resistant to certain antibiotics. Acquired in: hospitals/long-term care facilities (HA-MRSA) community (CA-MRSA)
VRE- Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Found in woulds and pressure ulcers (hospitals/nursing homes) originates in vaginal flora and GI tract
Superinfections- Occur when anti-infective antibiotic kills host flora. S&S: diarrhea, bladder pain, painful urination, or abnormal vaginal discharge.
Created by: 1297638201