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222 Cardiac

Cardiac Unit 1

QuestionAnswer
EKG Graphic representation of electrical conduction through the heart
Isoelectric Line Baseline, no electrical activity.
P Wave Atrial depolarization or contraction
PR Interval The time it takes the impulse to travel from SA node to ventricular muscle (AV Node)
QRS Complex Ventricular depolarization or contraction
T Wave Ventricular repolarization or relaxation after contraction.
ST Segment Time between the end of contraction and repolarization or relaxation of ventricular muscle.
Normal Sinus Rhythm (NSR) PQRST present P waves look alike in front of QRS. regular rate R-R intervals the same. atrial and ventricular rate are equal 60-100 conduction PRI 0.12-0.20 sec. QRS <0.12
Sinus Bradycardia PQRST present, same appearance Reg rhythm Rate: <60 bpm conduction: Normal PRI, QRS normal in athletes, dec cardiac output others TX: Atropine if symptomatic
Sinus Tachycardia PQRST present, same appearances Rhythm: Regular Rate: 100-150 bpm Conduction: Normal PRI, QRS PT response: Decreased cardiac output TX: treat cause first (pain, low 02, hypovolemia, anxiety, bronchodilator)
Acapella small hand held device, combines PEP (positive expiratory pressure) and airway vibrations to mobilize pulmonary secretions
Anti-tussive cough suppressant
Asthma chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways lead to recurrent wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and cough, especially at night and early morning.
Bronchitis inflammation of the bronchi in lower respiratory tract, usually with or after a viral URI
Bronchoscopy bronchi visualized through fiber optic tube
Bronchospasm increase in bronchial smooth muscle tone with resultant closure of small airways. Airway edema develops causing secretion build up. Wheezing, dyspnea, use of accessory muscles, hypoxia, and tachypnea.
Laryngospasm spasm of laryngeal muscle.
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder. A preventable, treatable disease state with chronic airflow limitations that is not fully reversible. Airflow limitation usually progressive and associated with abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious
Cor pulmonale enlargement of the right ventricle secondary to diseases of the lung, thorax, or pulmonary circulation.
Crackles (rales) fine-short duration, discontinuous, high-pitched sounds heard just before end of inspiration. Rice krispie like. Coarse-long duration, discontinuous, low-pitched sounds caused by air passing through airways intermittently occluded by mucus, unstable bronc
Crepitus crackling or rattling sound made by a part of the body, either spontaneously or during physical exam.
Dyspnea air hunger in labored or difficult breathing, sometimes accompanied by pain.
Emphysema a COPD marked by abnormal increase in size of air spaces distal to terminal bronchiole with destruction of alveolar walls.
FEV1 second forced expiratory volume in one second
Expectorant an agent such as Guaifenesin that promotes clearance of mucus from resp tract.
Hemoptysis expectoration of blood that arises room the larynx, trachea, bronchi, or lungs.
Hypercapnia increase in partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood, typically to levels greater than 45-50 mmHg. ↑CO2 in blood result from inadequate ventilation or massive mismatches between ventilation and perfusion of the blood.
Hypercarbia see hypercapnia.
Hypoxia oxygen deficiency in body tissues.
Hypoxemia decreased oxygen tension (O2 concentration) of arterial blood, measured by the arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) values.
ISE spirometry where visual and vocal stimuli are given to produce maximum effort during deep breathing.
Mucolytic pertaining to a class of agents that liquefy sputum or reduce its viscosity.
Orthopnea labored breathing occurs when lying flat and improves when standing or sitting up.
PEFR (peak expiratory flow rate) maximum rate of exhalation during forced expiration, measured in liters per second or liters per minute. Used to test airway obstruction.
Pneumothorax collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity. Gas enters as a result of perforation through the chest wall (trauma, iatrogenic injury) or pleura.
Postural drainage passive airway clearance technique in which patients are positioned so that gravity will assist with removal of secretions from specific lobes of lung, bronchi, or lung cavities.
Pulmonary function test test to evaluate condition of respiratory system. Measures expiratory flow and lung volumes and capacities.
Rhonchi low-pitched wheezing, snoring or squeaking sound heard in a person with partial airway obstruction.
Status asthmatics persistent and intractable asthma.
Thoracentesis inserting a needle through the chest wall and into pleural space usually to remove fluid for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
Tidal volumes volume of air inspired and expired in a normal breath.
Tracheostomy surgical opening of trachea to provide and secure an open airway.
V/Q scan used in diagnoses of PE. Microscopic spheres of radioactive particles inhaled to evaluate ventilation and perfusion.
Wheezes continuous musical sound heard predominantly on expiration caused by narrowing of the lumen of respiratory passageway.
Created by: CJWight