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Psych Chapter1

Developmental Psychology across the lifespans

dynamic systems Continual change within individuals and social groups and the systematic connection of each change to other developments in individuals and society.
case study An in depth analysis of one individual
classical conditioning A type of learning in which an organism responds in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally does not bring about that type of response.
code of ethics A set of moral principles formed by a group or organization and used to provide guidelines for moral behavior.
cognitive theory Focuses on the processes that allow people to think, know and understand the world.
cohort An inclusive term that refers to a group of people who share the same age and experience the same historical events.
continuous change Changes that do not occur in set stages and cover the entire life span.
control group In research, the group not given the specific intervention or treatment given to the experimental group. This group, however, is similar to the experimental group on relevant ways (e.g., similar age or occupation).
correlation Identification of association between two factors.
cross-sectional study Research in which people of different ages are compared at the same point in time.
cross-sequential research Research that consists of a number of different age groups that are examined over several points in time.
culture The beliefs, customs, behaviors, rules and rituals a group uses to define their life together and transmit from one generation to the next.
dependent variable In experimental research, the area that may change after the introduction of, or changes in, the independent variable.
developmental theory Systemic statement of principles meant to provide a coherent framework for understanding how people change as they grow older.
discontinuous change Development that occurs in distinct stages
ecological perspective Considered “emergent theories” in that they use multicultural, multidisciplinary, and multi-method analysis. These perspectives argue for the inclusion and the analysis of all systems that impact the developing person.
ecological systems approach This approach considers the relationship between the individual and the environment and considers all contexts and systems that affect development.
ethnicity People who share traditions, customs, and rituals that generally include ancestral heritage and often religion, national origin, and language.
ethological perspective The analysis of animal behavior patterns particularly as they relate to evolutionary origins and species survival.
experiment Research method designed to determine cause and effect relationships. One variable (the independent variable) is manipulated in order to observe and record changes in the other variable (the dependent variable).
experimental group In research, the group or participants given a specific intervention or treatment.
human development The analysis of how people change and do not change over time.
humanistic theory Contends that people have a natural capacity to make decisions about their lives and to control their behaviors
hypothesis A prediction stated in such a way that it can be tested
independent variable In experimental research, the variable that is introduced in order to see its effect on the dependent variable.
life span perspective Identification of attributes that both unite people as human beings and distinguish people as unique entities. It considers all human experiences from conception to death.
longitudinal research Research in which the behavior of one or more subjects in a study is measured as they age.
maturation Pre-determined unfolding of genetic information.
nature Traits, abilities, and capacities inherited from one’s parents
nurture Environmental influences that shape behavior
operant conditioning A form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by its association with positive or negative consequences.
psychodynamic theory Analyzes the development of a person’s inner drives and how they impact every aspect of a person’s life.
race The use of biological traits (e.g., skin color) to differentiate people.
replication The use of the same research design on a different group; the results of which verify or refute the original study’s conclusions.
scientific method A five-step research process that formulates a question, develops a hypothesis, tests the hypothesis, draws conclusions, and makes the findings available.
social construction Shared perspectives of social order based on a belief of how things “should be” rather than reality.
social cognitive theory Analyzes how learning occurs by observing the behavior of another person, called a model.
socioeconomic status (SES) A measure that reflects a combination of a person’s income, educational level, occupation, and residence.
survey A research design where a large group of people chosen to represent an even larger population are asked questions about their attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors.
Created by: Tara2022